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Reproductive life history of Thornicroft’s giraffe in Zambia: Giraffe reproduction in ZambiaKnowledge of the reproductive life history of giraffe in the wild is sparse. Giraffe have two fairly unusual reproductive patterns among large mammals: they can become pregnant while lactating, and calf mortality is extremely high. Longitudinal records are largely absent, so tracking reproductive parameters tends to combine information from captive and field studies. In this study, we examine longitudinal data obtained over a 33‐year period in one population of Thornicroft’s giraffe in order to chart their reproductive careers. We found that age at first parturition was 6.4 years, or slightly later than in captivity. Giraffe bred throughout the year, with cows producing offspring on average every 677.7 days. About half of the calves died before one year of age, but death of a calf did not reduce interbirth interval. We conclude that the lifetime reproductive success of giraffe is more dependent on longevity and calf survivorship than on reproductive rate.
Ecological determinants of herd size in the Thornicroft’s giraffe of Zambia: Giraffe herd size in ZambiaGiven that giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) live in an extremely flexible social system, and that breeding is nonseasonal, they are an ideal species for examining how ecological variables contribute to fluctuations in herd size. We present an analysis of 34 years of data on a population of Thornicroft’s giraffe (G. c. thornicrofti Lydekker 1911) that reveal how herd size changes with season and habitat....
AMPHIBIAN DISEASES-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Adult Notophthalmus viridescens in North-Central Alabama, USA...We report on a haphazard collection of dead adult Notophthalmus viridescens discovered during a ﬁeld zoology class trip conducted by KAB in Birmingham, Alabama....
Genetic aspects of equids with particular reference to their hybridsThis paper gives a brief review of the cytogenetic knowlege of equine species, the chromosomal errors currently known to exist, and an account of the interspecific hybrids that have served man during the 4500 years of domestication of horse and donkey.
Feather lead concentrations and 207Pb/20Ppb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ?10% of a bird’s annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird’s lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2?4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning.