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  • Uncover the unrevealed data: the magnitude of Javan leopard removal from the wild

    Adhiasto, D.N.; Wilianto, E.; Wibisono, Hariyo Tabah (2020)
  • Behavioral diversity as a potential indicator of positive animal welfare

    Miller, Lance J.; Vicino, Greg A.; Sheftel, Jessica; Lauderdale, Lisa K. (2020)
    Modern day zoos and aquariums continuously assess the welfare of their animals and use evidence to make informed management decisions. Historically, many of the indicators of animal welfare used to assess the collection are negative indicators of welfare, such as stereotypic behavior. However, a lack of negative indicators of animal welfare does not demonstrate that an individual animal is thriving. There is a need for validated measures of positive animal welfare and there is a growing body of evidence that supports the use of behavioral diversity as a positive indicator of welfare. This includes an inverse relationship with stereotypic behavior as well as fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and is typically higher in situations thought to promote positive welfare. This review article highlights previous research on behavioral diversity as a potential positive indicator of welfare. Details are provided on how to calculate behavioral diversity and how to use it when evaluating animal welfare. Finally, the review will indicate how behavioral diversity can be used to inform an evidence-based management approach to animal care and welfare.
  • Rediscovery of the horseshoe shrimp Lightiella serendipita Jones, 1961 (Cephalocarida: Hutchinsoniellidae) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, with a key to the worldwide species of Cephalocarida

    Garcia, Crystal; Woo, Isa; Rogers, D. Christopher; Flanagan, Alison M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.
    Lightiella serendipitaJones, 1961 was first discovered in San Francisco Bay, California in 1953, but it had not been observed since 1988. In 2017, a total of 13 adult L. serendipita specimens were found as part of a study in central San Francisco Bay, nearly doubling the total number of specimens ever collected. We measured vertical distribution of macroinvertebrates and environmental variables, including grain size and chemical composition of sediment samples, to evaluate potential features associated with the habitat of the species. Specimens were generally found in sediments with low organic matter (1.7–3%), high sulfate concentrations (594.6–647 ppm SO4), fine grain size (12.8–36.2% sand, 35.6–58% silt, 22.8–37.6% clay) and were mostly found in deep core sections (4–10 cm). Specimens were also consistently observed in cores containing tube-forming Polychaeta (i.e., Sabaco elongatus (Verrill, 1873) and Capitellidae), suggesting L. serendipita may have a commensal relationship with sedentary polychaetes, as do other cephalocaridans such as Lightiella incisaGooding, 1963. We provide a scanning electron micrograph of L. serendipita and the first complete key to the species in class Cephalocarida to help elucidate the taxonomy of this rare crustacean taxon. The perceived absence of L. serendipita in previous surveys of the Bay may be attributable to its rarity; however, additional research is needed to fully understand habitat requirements and population size of this unique endemic species.
  • Rigorous wildlife disease surveillance

    Watsa, Mrinalini; Wildlife Disease Surveillance Focus Group; Erkenswick, G.; Prost, S.; Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Moore, Caroline; Kubiski, Steven V.; Witte, Carmel L.; Ogden, R.; Meredith, A.; et al. (2020)
    Evidence suggests that zoonotic (animal origin) coronaviruses have caused three recent emerging infectious disease (EID) outbreaks: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the search for an intermediate host for SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19), studies have identified SARS-CoV-2–like strains in bats (1) and pangolins (2), but these do not contain the same polybasic cleavage site that is present in SARS-CoV-2 (3). It is unknown what the intermediate host for this spillover event was because to date there are no international or national conventions on pathogen screening associated with animals, animal products, or their movements, and capacity for EID diagnostics is limited along much of the human-wildlife interface....

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