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San Diego Zoo Global Library staff is currently working to populate this repository. Please feel welcome to contact us with questions or comments.

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  • Institute for Conservation Research

    Peer reviewed and scientific works by SDZG's Institute for Conservation Research staff. Includes books, book sections, articles and conference publications and presentations.

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  • SDZG Research Publications

    Peer reviewed and scientific works by San Diego Zoo Global staff. Includes books, book sections, articles and conference publications and presentations.

Recent Submissions

  • Crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Razafindramanana, J.; Salmona, J.; King, T.; Roullet, D.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Sgarlata, G.M.; Schwitzer, C. (2020)
    Listed as Critically Endangered as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of greater than or equal to 80% over a period of 30 years (three generations), due primarily to observed continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat from burning of forests to provide pasture for livestock and logging for charcoal production, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. Given the likely continuing population decline, the species has been uplisted to Critically Endangered.
  • Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Razafindramanana, J.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Rakotondrabe, R.; Roullet, D.; Irwin, M; King, T. (2020)
    There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to 80% in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 8 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area (through deforestation), extent and quality of habitat (selective logging), and exploitation through unsustainable levels of hunting. Furthermore, Eulemur mongoz has undergone hybridization with E. rufus in Western Betsiboka. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.
  • Crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Reuter, K.E; Eppley, Timothy M.; Hending, D; Pacifici, M; Semel, B.; Zaonarivelo, J. (2020)
    A population reduction of greater than or equal to 50% is suspected to be met in the future over a time period of 25 years (three generations based on an 8.4-year generation time, Pacifici et al. 2013). This is based on a continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
  • Alaotra reed lemur (Hapalemur alaotrensis). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Ralainasolo, F.B; Raveloarimalala, M.L; Randrianasolo, H.; Reuter, K.E; Heriniaina, R; Clarke, T; Ravaloharimanitra, M.; Volampeno, S.; Donati, G; Razafindramanana, J.; et al. (2020)
    Listed as Critically Endangered as the species has been observed to have undergone a population reduction of greater than or equal to 80% over a period of 27 years (three generations), due primarily to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible.
  • Red brown lemur (Eulemur rufus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Razafindramanana, J.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Rakotondrabe, R.; Rakotoarisoa, A.A.; Ravaloharimanitra, M.; King, T. (2020)
    There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to 30% in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 8 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, and exploitation through unsustainable levels of hunting. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
  • Sambirano lesser bamboo lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Eppley, Timothy M.; Razafindramanana, J.; Borgerson, C.; Patel, E.; Louis, E.E. (2020)
    Listed as Vulnerable as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of greater than or equal to 30% over a period of 24 years (three generations), due primarily to continuing decline in the area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible.
  • Ganzhorna's mouse lemur (Microcebus ganzhorni). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Ganzhorn, J.; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Hyde Roberts, S; Poelstra, J.W; Rakotondranary, S.J.; Ramanamanjato, J.-B.; Randriantafika, F.M.; Refaly, E.; Tsagnangara, C.; et al. (2020)
    Up to 2016, the south-eastern subpopulation of Grey Mouse Lemurs has been considered to represent a disjunct population of Microcebus murinus (Mittermeier et al. 2010). Based on samples from the littoral forest of Mandena a new form has been separated from M. murinus and been named as M. ganzhorni based on genetic grounds (Hotaling et al. 2016). Morphologically M. ganzhorni is indistinguishable from M. murinus and difficult to distinguish from M. griseorufus (M. griseorufus has a white belly with white underfur while M. murinus and M. ganzhorni have greyish underfur) and thus, taxonomic assignments in the field remain uncertain without genetic analyses. Given these uncertainty, the Extent of Occurrence was unclear at the time the species was described. New genetic analyses showed that M. ganzhorni does not occur in Andohahela National Park (Tiley, Poelstra, Yoder et al., unpubl. data) and does not move up the coastal mountains as this is the range of M. tanosi and M. manitatra (Rasoloarison et al. 2013, Donati et al. 2019). M. ganzhorni thus seems to be restricted to littoral forests east and possibly west of Fort Dauphin. In any case, the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be above 10 km� but below 500 km�. These forests are severely fragmented with the largest fragments measuring less than 2 km�. The size of most forest fragments is declining and forests are being degraded. The species tolerates forest degradation and occurs in a wide range of different habitats, including gardens....
  • Thomas' dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus thomasi). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Ganzhorn, J.; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Lahann, P; Rakotondranary, S.J.; Ramanamanjato, J.-B.; Randriantafika, F.M. (2020)
    This species has been assessed as Endangered as the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be between 12 and 260 km2, and the extent of occurrence is estimated to be 458 km2. The forests are severely fragmented with the largest fragments measuring less than 4 km2. The size of most forest fragments is declining and forests are being degraded. The species does not seem to tolerate forest degradation and thus does not occupy all forest fragments of the region (Ganzhorn et al. 2007). Given the impact of habitat loss, the species is thought to be in decline.
  • Ramantsoavanaa's southern woolly lemur (Avahi ramanantsoavani). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Andriamisedra, T.R; Ranaivoarisoa, F.N.; Peterson, C.R.; Ratsimbazafy, J.; Louis, E.E. (2020)
    The extent of occurrence of this species covers approximately 14,376 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also thought to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
  • Lorenz Von Liburnau's woolly lemur (Avahi occidentalis). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Reuter, K.E; Steffens, T.S. (2020)
    The species is distributed in two disjunct ranges which, calculated separately, sum up to 3,057 km2; the minimum convex polygon of the total range measures 8,619 km2. This extent of occurrence (EOO) is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat with no overall improvement. It has been estimated that there will be a 78% reduction in the species' range from 2000 to 2080 due to climate change (Brown and Yoder 2015). Based on the EOO, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
  • Betsileo woolly lemur (Avahi betsileo). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

    Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E. (2020)
    The extent of occurrence of this species covers less than 1,470 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
  • White-fronted lemur (Eulemur albifrons). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Borgerson, C.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Donati, G; Colquhoun, I.C; Irwin, M; Johnson, S; Louis, E.E.; Patel, E.; Ralainasolo, F.B; Ravaloharimanitra, M.; et al. (2020)
    Listed as Vulnerable, Eulemur albifrons is suspected to have undergone a population decline greater than or equal to 30% over a period of 24 years (three generations), due primarily to unsustainable hunting pressure and continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. These causes have not ceased, and will, to a large extent, not be easily reversible
  • Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Borgerson, C.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Johnson, S; Louis, E.E.; Razafindramanana, J. (2020)
    A population reduction ofgreater than or equal to 80% is suspected to be met over three generations (24 years, assuming a generation length of 8 years). This is based on a continuing decline of the population, due to unsustainable hunting pressure and a reduction in the extent and quality of habitat from subsistence and cash-crop agriculture, illegal logging for precious timber, and frequent cyclones. Based on suspected and inferred decline, measured direct and indirect threats, and its narrow niche dimensions, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.
  • Hapalemur meridionalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Donati, G; Balestri, M; Campera, M; Eppley, Timothy M. (2020)
    There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to30% in this species over a three generation period. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, and exploitation through hunting. Between 1999-2005 habitat loss in the Tsitongambarika Protected Area has been 1.74% per year (Andriamasimanana 2008). A population reduction of greater than or equal to 30% is also suspected to be met in the next 27 years (over a three generation time period) due to the same causes. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. Of note, it has been estimated that there will be a 21% reduction in the species' range from 2000 to 2080 due to climate change alone (Brown and Yoder 2015). Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
  • Scott's sportive lemur (Lepilemur scottorum). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Eppley, Timothy M.; Borgerson, C.; Sawyer, R.M.; Fenosoa, Z.S.E. (2020)
    The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species is estimated to be 2,544 km2 . This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also thought to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
  • Moore's woolly lemur (Avahi mooreorum). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Eppley, Timothy M.; Borgerson, C.; Sawyer, R.M.; Fenosoa, Z.S.E. (2020)
    The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species is 2,544 km2 . This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also suspected to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered
  • White-footed sportive lemur (Lepilemur leucopus)

    Eppley, Timothy M.; Ferguson, B; Louis, E.E.; Rakotondranary, S.J.; Ganzhorn, J. (2020)
    The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species covers 2,315 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also suspected to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered
  • Peyrieras' woolly lemur (Avahi peyrierasi). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E. (2020)
    A population reduction of greater than or equal to 30% is predicted to occur over a three-generation time period (30 years) in the future, based on continuing and projected decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to ongoing and projected exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species is 6,991 km2 and extremely fragmented. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
  • Black lemur (Eulemur macaco). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

    Andriantsimanarilafy, R.R; Borgerson, C.; Clarke, T; Colquhoun, I.C; Cotton, A; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Heriniaina, R; Irwin, M; Johnson, S; et al. (2020)
    The range of the species is severely fragmented and remaining areas of forest are under anthropogenic pressure (Mittermeier et al. 2010, Tinsman et al. 2019). Given this, and that the overall population size is suspected to be in decline at a rate of >50% over three generations, the current assessment lists Eulemur macaco as Endangered.
  • Roatán spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura oedirhina): Conservation Action Plan 2020—2025

    Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Goode, Ashley B.C.; Grant, Tandora D. (IUCN SSC Iguana Specialist GroupGland, Switzerland, 2020)
    The Endangered Roatán spiny-tailed iguana, Ctenosaura oedirhina, is found only on the islands of Roatán, Barbareta, and some surrounding cays. Although dense populations can be found in some privately protected locations, threats persist and management efforts are needed. This document presents a comprehensive five-year plan for the conservation and management actions considered essential to ensuring the long-term survival of Ctenosaura oedirhina in the wild. This plan combines knowledge and expertise from government, nongovernmental organizations, and the community of Roatán and greater Honduras, with the collective expertise of the IUCN SSC Iguana Specialist Group....

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