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San Diego Zoo Global Library staff is currently working to populate this repository. Please feel welcome to contact us with questions or comments.

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  • Institute for Conservation Research

    Peer reviewed and scientific works by SDZG's Institute for Conservation Research staff. Includes books, book sections, articles and conference publications and presentations.

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  • SDZG Research Publications

    Peer reviewed and scientific works by San Diego Zoo Global staff. Includes books, book sections, articles and conference publications and presentations.

Recent Submissions

  • Stereotypic behaviour predicts reproductive performance and litter sex ratio in giant pandas

    Martin, Meghan S.; Owen, Megan A.; Wintle, Nathan J. P.; Zhang, Guiquan; Zhang, Hemin; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2020)
    Breeding and welfare problems confront many conservation breeding programs. Stereotypies—repetitive, unvarying, functionless behaviours —are common abnormal behaviours that often arise in suboptimal conditions. While the role of stereotypies in welfare assessment is well studied, few investigations address the relationship between stereotypic behaviour and reproduction. We examined the correlation between stereotypic behaviour and reproductive performance in 101 giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). High stereotyping males copulated more and produced more cubs, suggesting that highly sexually motivated males were prone to stereotypy but also had high reproductive competence. Female stereotypies were negatively associated with all reproductive measures closely tied to behavioural competence: high stereotyping females were less likely to copulate, less likely to mother-rear cubs, and—probably a result of poor maternal care—had lower cub survival. However, females that exhibited stereotypies were more likely to produce a cub, suggesting stereotypies are tied to behavioural but not physiological competence. High stereotyping female pandas also displayed strong and consistent bias toward production of female offspring while paternal relationship to sex allocation was the reverse. These results are consistent with stress-mediated sex allocation theory. Our findings raise concern about differential reproductive success among high and low stereotyping pandas, and possible genetic adaptation to captivity.
  • An assessment of wildlife use by northern Laos nationals

    Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Glikman, Jenny A. (2020)
    Unsustainable wildlife trade is a well-publicized area of international concern in Laos. Historically rich in both ethnic and biological diversity, Laos has emerged in recent years as a nexus for cross-border trade in floral and faunal wildlife, including endangered and threatened species. However, there has been little sustained research into the scale and scope of consumption of wildlife by Laos nationals themselves. Here, we conducted 100 semistructured interviews to gain a snapshot of consumption of wildlife in northern Laos, where international and in some cases illegal wildlife trade is known to occur. We found that although bear bile for medicine was the most common product consumed, individuals also used a variety of other products, including animals considered endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN. The majority of animals we found consumed are classified as “Vulnerable” or “Least Threatened” by the IUCN; however, sufficient demand for a species can cause increased, rapid decline in the species’ population and significantly increase the challenge of conserving them. These results therefore illuminate where conservation priorities should shift towards, so that stable-yet-consumed species do not mirror the fate of highly trafficked animals.
  • Conservation translocations: a review of common difficulties and promising directions

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, D. T.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2020)
    Translocations are a common conservation and management strategy, but despite their popularity, translocations are a high-cost endeavor with a history of failures. It is therefore imperative to maximize their success by learning from our collective experience....
  • Scent anointing in mammals: functional and motivational insights from giant pandas

    Charlton, Benjamin D.; Owen, Megan A.; Zhang, H.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2020)
    Although several mammals impregnate their fur with environmental odors, a phenomenon termed scent anointing or rubbing, the functional relevance of this behavior often is unclear. One theory is that scent anointing could be a form of scent matching with environmental odors to signal competitiveness and home range occupation....
  • Fitness costs associated with ancestry to isolated populations of an endangered species

    Wilder, Aryn P.; Navarro, Asako Y.; King, Shauna N. D.; Miller, William B.; Thomas, Steven M.; Steiner, Cynthia C.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Shier, Debra M. (2020)
    ... The endangered Pacific pocket mouse (Perognathus longimembris pacificus) persists in three isolated populations in southern California. Mitochondrial and microsatellite data indicated that effective population sizes were extremely small (Ne< 50), and continued declines prompted a conservation breeding program founded by individuals from each population....
  • Dietary ecology of the Nigeria–Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti)

    Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Morgan, Bethan J.; Doudja, Roger; Kentatchime, Fabrice; Mba, Flaubert; Dadjo, Alvine; Venditti, Dana M.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Fosso, Bernard; Mounga, Albert; et al. (2020)
    Examining the diets of primate populations inhabiting different habitat types could be useful in understanding local adaptation and divergence between these populations. In Cameroon, the Nigeria–Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) is subdivided into two genetically distinct populations that occupy different habitat types; one occurs in forests to the west and the other in a forest–woodland–savanna mosaic (ecotone) in the center of the country....
  • Effects of artificial light at night on the foraging behavior of an endangered nocturnal mammal

    Shier, Debra M.; Bird, Alicia K.; Wang, Thea B. (2020)
    ...The endangered Stephens’ kangaroo rat (SKR), Dipodomys stephensi, is a nocturnal rodent threatened by habitat destruction from urban expansion. The degree to which ALAN impacts their recovery is unknown....
  • Possible evidence for a lack of medicinal efficacy in sun bear bile?

    Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Gaffi, Lorenzo; Zaw, Thet; Mussoni, Giulia; Glikman, Jenny A. (2020)
    A growing body of evidence has illuminated the ubiquity of bear bile and bear gallbladder use across mainland Southeast Asia (Davis et al. 2016, 2019a,b). In Vietnam, the use of bear bile/gallbladder appears to be comparable to neighboring China, with ubiquitous farms in provinces across the country, the majority of which extract bile from Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) (Crudge et al. 2020)....
  • Distributing samples and information

    Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; Heineman, Katherine D.; Blaik, Rowan; Frances, Anne; Horn, Christa M.; Tiller, Anita; Allenstein, Pam; Anderson, Stacy; Crews, Spencer; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    Conservation collections ideally serve the conservation of the species in the wild. Distributions made for this purpose are encouraged. Permits, the collector’s institution collection policy, and the storage agreement with banking facilities will govern the distribution details for seeds, tissues, or whole plants in the future. Distribute in a manner that maintains collection health....
  • Documentation and data sharing: Introduction

    Maschinski, Joyce; Heineman, Katherine D.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    ...The rapidly improving information technology and bioinformatics fields are increasing the speed and convenience of data input and data sharing for both research and conservation actions. However, key to the efficacy of any database is timely input and ongoing updates from practitioners.
  • Documentation

    Maschinski, Joyce; Heineman, Katherine D.; Randall, Johnny; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    Conservation collections require appropriate documentation to retain their highest conservation value. When documentation is kept according to international standards, it can be easily shared with other institutions
  • Genetic guidelines for maintaining a conservation collection

    Maschinski, Joyce; Havens, Kayri; Font, Jeremie; Kramer, Andrea; Vitt, Pati; Neale, Jennifer Ramp; Guerrant Jr., Edward O.; Edwards, Christine; Steele, Stephanie; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    While the conservation collection grows in the nursery, take care to maintain genetic diversity. Keeping records and labels on aternal lines will help track the potential genetic diversity represented in the collection and can be used to equalize family lines for reintroductions or other conservation translocations.
  • Genetic guidelines for acquiring, maintaining, and using a conservation collection: Introduction

    Maschinski, Joyce; Havens, Kayri; Font, Jeremie; Kramer, Andrea; Vitt, Pati; Neale, Jennifer Ramp; Guerrant Jr., Edward O.; Edwards, Christine; Steele, Stephanie; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    Essential to plant conservation practice of the Center for Plant Conservation is taking action that will benefit species’ survival and reduce the extinction risk of globally and/or regionally rare plant species. CPC participating institutions make conservation collections for this purpose....
  • Genetic guidelines for maintaining a conservation collection

    Maschinski, Joyce; Havens, Kayri; Font, Jeremie; Kramer, Andrea; Vitt, Pati; Neale, Jennifer Ramp; Guerrant Jr., Edward O.; Edwards, Christine; Steele, Stephanie; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    Give your reintroduced population a good chance for survival by starting with adequate numbers of plants or seeds at the beginning. Determine the source of the plants or seeds. Determine whether the source should consist of seeds or plants from a single population or from mixed populations.
  • Field genebanks or inter situ collection

    Maschinski, Joyce; Westwood, Murphy; Havens, Kayri; Hoban, Sean; Anderson, Stacy; Walsh, Seana; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    Maintaining small populations of plants in protected places may be a necessary conservation strategy for some species; these are known as field genebanks. At botanical gardens, these are often part of living display collections....
  • Genetic guidelines for acquiring a conservation collection

    Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; Guerrant, Ed; Murray, Sheila; Havens, Kayri; Font, Jeremie; Kramer, Andrea; Vitt, Pati; Neale, Jennifer Ramp; Guerrant Jr., Edward O.; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    Planning the quantities to collect from one population and across the range of species will improve the chance of maximizing the genetic diversity of the conservation collection. Maintain maternal lines separately to help approximate potential genetic diversity and allow flexibility for use in future conservation translocations. Collect no more than 10% of a population’s seed crop in a single year and no more than 5 years out of 10.
  • After the installation

    Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Lange, Jimmy; Coffey, Emily; Forbes, Holly; Ceska, Jennifer; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    A reintroduction will have a higher chance of successful establishment if it receives water and weeding after installation. Keeping land managers apprised of the performance of the rare species and engaging them in active site management is critical for long-term population persistence.
  • Justifying and deciding whether to conduct a reintroduction or other conservation translocation

    Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    Reintroduction is not the first step toward the conservation of a species, but rather follows a careful process of gathering information about the species, threats, alternative actions, and future needs. There are several considerations for justifying a reintroduction.
  • Rare plant reintroduction and other conservation translocations: Introduction

    Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    The ultimate goal of rare plant conservation is to ensure that unique taxa experience continued evolution within a natural context. The science of reintroduction is rapidly evolving.
  • Implementing the reintroduction

    Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
    Good logistical preparation will make installation day run smoothly. Ensure that the plants or seed plots are labeled, mapped, and recorded in such a way that they can be monitored for many years into the future.

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