• Predation of nesting Thick-billed Parrots Rhychopsitta pachyrhyncha by bobcats in northwestern Mexico

      We report on what appear to be increasing predation events on nesting Thick-billed Parrots Rhychopsitta pachyrhyncha. Thick-billed Parrots are classified as ‘Endangered’ and their seasonal breeding range is restricted to increasingly fragmented and degraded high elevation mixed conifer forest habitat within the Sierra Madre Occidental region of north-western Mexico. Predation of established breeding pairs has recently contributed to the ongoing decline of Thick-billed Parrot populations by removing mature birds with high reproductive value, which has associated consequences for future recruitment. We observed increasing predation events on nesting Thick-billed Parrots by bobcats Lynx rufus accompanied by kittens throughout the 2018–2019 breeding seasons, and we speculate that recent reductions in bobcat habitat have pushed them into new ranges where they are supplementing their diet with nontraditional prey items.
    • Vocalizations and associated behaviors of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in captivity

      Berg, Judith Kay; (1983)
      This analysis presents the physical characteristics of the vocalizations of the African elephant and describes the associated behavioral contexts of the elephant's communicative system. One male and 8 female African elephants were systematically observed in a relatively large captive environment....
    • Genetic aspects of equids with particular reference to their hybrids

      Benirschke, Kurt; Ryder, Oliver A.; (1985)
      This paper gives a brief review of the cytogenetic knowlege of equine species, the chromosomal errors currently known to exist, and an account of the interspecific hybrids that have served man during the 4500 years of domestication of horse and donkey.
    • Giant panda conservation science: how far we have come

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Wei, Fuwen; Wildt, David E.; Kouba, Andrew J.; Zhang, Zejun (The Royal Society, 2009-10-28)
      ...Here we discuss recent advancements in conservation science for giant pandas and suggest that the way forward is more direct application of emerging science to management and policy.
    • Species identification and chromosome variation of captive two-toed sloths

      Steiner, Cynthia C.; Houck, Marlys L.; Ryder, Oliver A. (2010)
      Two-toed sloth species, Linnaeus's and Hoffmman's, are frequent residents of zoo collections in North America….We describe here a PCR-based technique that allows species identification of two-toed sloths without requiring sequencing, by using a mitochondrial marker (COI gene) and restriction enzyme assay….
    • Got hybridization? A multidisciplinary approach for informing science policy

      Ellstrand, Norman C.; Biggs, David; Kaus, Andrea; Lubinsky, Pesach; McDade, Lucinda A.; Preston, Kristine; Prince, Linda M.; Regan, Helen M.; Rorive, Veronique; Ryder, Oliver A.; et al. (2010)
      ...Developing sound science-based conservation policy that addresses hybridization requires cross-disciplinary social-science and life-science research to address the following two questions: (1) How do human decisions with regard to species protection, trade, transportation, land use, and other factors affect the opportunities for, and rates of hybridization between, rare species and more common relatives? and (2) How do the positive or negative perceived values regarding hybrids and hybrid-derived individuals compare with values regarding their nonhybridized counterparts from social, cultural, economic, and environmental perspectives...?
    • Remote touch prey-detection by Madagascar crested ibises Lophotibis cristata urschi

      Cunningham, Susan J.; Castro, Isabel; Jensen, Thomas; Potter, Murray A.; (2010)
      Birds that forage by probing must often rely on sensory systems other than vision to detect their buried prey. Such senses may include hearing (e.g. Australian magpies (Atramidae), American robins (Turdidae)) or chemical senses/olfaction (e.g. kiwi (Apterygidae) and some shorebirds (Scolopacidae)). Probe foraging kiwi and shorebirds are also able to use vibrotactile cues to locate prey buried in the substrate at some distance from their bill‐tips (‘remote touch’). These birds possess an organ consisting of a honey‐comb of sensory pits in bone of the bill‐tips, packed with mechanoreceptive nerve ending (Herbst corpuscles). Such a bill‐tip organ has recently also been described in ibises (Threskiornithinae), but its function not elucidated. We designed a foraging experiment presenting mealworm prey to three captive Madagascar crested ibises Lophotibis cristata urschi under a variety of trial conditions to discover whether they were using remote touch, mediated by their bill‐tip organ; chemosense/olfaction; or hearing to locate buried prey. The ibises were reliant on remote touch for prey detection – the first time this sensory system has been demonstrated for this group of birds. They did not appear to use hearing or chemical senses/olfaction to aid in prey detection.
    • Characterization of progressive keratitis in Otariids: Otariid keratitis

      Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Renner, Michael S.; Manire, Charles A.; Doescher, Bethany; Schmitt, Todd L.; Osborn, Steven D.; Croft, Lara; Olds, June; Gehring, Erica; Mergl, June; et al. (2010)
      ... ‘Otariid Keratitis’ occurs in all populations of eared seals evaluated. A large‐scale epidemiological study is ongoing to identify the risk factors that contribute to this disease. Exposure to chronic sunlight appears to be an important risk factor as shade diminishes clinical signs; animals kept out of sunlight the majority of the time have less severe clinical signs....
    • Climate change and the koala Phascolarctos cinereus: water and energy

      Ellis, William A.H.; Melzer, A.; Clifton, I.; Carrick, F.; (2010)
      We studied two groups of koalas during a drought in central Queensland to investigate potential impacts of climatic variability on the physiology and behaviour of this species. The tree use, water turnover, field metabolic rate and diet of koalas during autumn and spring were compared to a similar study of koalas in summer and winter, also in central Queensland, to generate a seasonal picture of the response of koalas to climatic variation....
    • Zoo and wildlife libraries: An international survey

      Coates, Linda L.; Tierney, Kaitlyn Rose; (2010)
      The conservation and well-being of exotic animals is core to the mission of zoos, aquariums and many small nonprofit wildlife groups. Increasingly, these organizations are committed to scientific research, both basic and applied. To ascertain the current state of the libraries that support their efforts, librarians at the San Diego Zoo conducted an international survey between June and August, 2008. Only 73 libraries responded to our request for information....
    • Koala birth seasonality and sex ratios across multiple sites in Queensland, Australia

      Ellis, William A.H.; Bercovitch, Fred B.; FitzGibbon, S.; Melzer, A.; de Villers, D.; Dique, D.; (2010)
      ...he annual pattern of births was identical for males and females within locations, but overall annual patterns of births differed between the southern and northern sites. We conclude that koalas can bear offspring in every month of the year, but breed seasonally across Australia, and that a sex bias in the timing of births is absent from most regions.
    • Using molecular methods to improve the genetic management of captive breeding programs for threatened species

      Ivy, Jamie A.; Lacy, Robert C.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Bickham, John W.; Michler, Charles H.; Nichols, Krista M.; Rhodes, Gene E.; Woeste, Keith E. (Cambridge University PressCambridge, 2010)
      ...the genetic goals of captive population management are to minimize genetic drift, retain genetic diversity, restrict inbreeding, and limit adaptation to captivity (Lacy 1994). The foundations of most captive breeding programs are pedigree analyses, which are used to manage both the demography and genetics of captive populations (Ballou & Foose 1996)....
    • Developmental milestones among African elephant calves on their first day of life

      Bercovitch, Fred B.; Andrews, Jeff; (2010)
      ...We show that calves born in a zoo stand and walk on their own for the first time at the same age as those born in the wild. Calves born in the zoo take a little longer until first successful nursing, but the difference in age between wild and zoo is not statistically significant....
    • Twenty-four hour activity levels and walking rates of African elephants in a zoological setting

      Miller, Lance J.; Andrews, Jeff; Anderson, Mathew J.; (Houston, TX, 2010)
      …While there are many questions that need to be addressed surrounding the management of elephants, a first step is to examine the daily activity levels and walking rates of elephants within these facilities. The current study examined these questions for African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the San Diego Zoo's Wild Animal Park....
    • Influences of sex, incubation temperature, and environmental quality on gonadal estrogen and androgen receptor messenger RNA expression in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

      Moore, B.C.; Milnes, Mathew R.; Kohno, S.; Katsu, Y.; Iguchi, T.; LJ, Guilette, Jr; (2010)
      ...We have shown previously that gonads from wild-caught juvenile alligators express greater levels of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) than estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2).... These findings demonstrate that the mRNA expression of receptors required for steroid hormone signaling are modified by exposure to environmental factors, including temperature and contaminants.
    • Potential effects of a major hurricane on Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) reproduction in the Mississippi Sound

      Miller, Lance J.; Mackey, A.D.; Hoffland, A.D.; Solangi, M.; SA, Kuczaj, II; (2010)
      ...The purpose of the current report is to document the possible effect of increased reproduction for Atlantic bottlenose dolphins as a result of Hurricane Katrina. Data were utilized from ongoing opportunistic surveys conducted in the Mississippi Sound near Cat and Ship islands (see Fig. 1) as well as stranding data for Atlantic bottlenose dolphins provided by the Southeast Region Marine Mammal Stranding Network....
    • Seasonal and diurnal patterns of behavior exhibited by Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mississippi Sound

      Miller, Lance J.; Solangi, M.; SA, Kuczaj, II; (2010)
      Many of the threats to bottlenose dolphins are anthropogenic factors including overfishing, high‐speed boats, chemical runoff, and noise pollution. Having a thorough understanding of the behavior and behavioral patterns of these animals can help with conservation plans to protect this species. This study examined the behavioral states and behavioral events of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mississippi Sound....
    • Genetic variability in three native Iranian chicken populations of the Khorasan province based on microsatellite markers

      Mohammadabadi, M.R.; Nikbakhti, M.; Mirzaee, H.R.; Shandi, A.; Saghi, D.A.; Romanov, Michael N.; Moiseyeva, I.G.; (2010)
      This paper represents the results of a study on the genetic diversity in three native chicken populations (Barred, Brown and Black) of Khorasan, a province in northeastern Iran, by using four microsatellite markers (MCW0005, MCW0016, MCW0018 and MCW0034). Average number of alleles was found to be 5.25 per locus across all populations....
    • Mark-recapture accurately estimates census for Tuatara, a burrowing reptile

      Moore, J.A.; Grant, Tandora D.; Brown, D.; Keall, S.N.; Nelson, N.J.; (2010)
      Estimates of population size are necessary for effective management of threatened and endangered species, but accurate estimation is often difficult when species are cryptic. We evaluated effectiveness of mark–recapture techniques using the Lincoln–Peterson estimator for predicting true census size of a population of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), a burrowing reptile that is a conservation priority in New Zealand....