• 5.3 Grazing

      Becchetti, Theresa; Barry, Sheila; Honey, Marc; Ozeran, Rebecca; Defreese, Denise; de la Rosa, Charlie; Rao, Devii; Freese, Robert; Principe, Zach; Shomo, Brian (California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC), 2021)
      ...The information in this guide is organized into sections based on similarities in the certain techniques— either how they are applied or how they control a weed.... Grazing by cattle, sheep, and goats can be used as a technique for controlling weeds. There are differences in effectiveness among grazers depending on weed species and environments being targeted, but in general grazing (herbivory) for weed control varies more by the plants being grazed than the animals grazing them....
    • A checklist of the iguanas of the world (Iguanidae; Iguaninae)

      Iguana Taxonomy Working Group (ITWG); Buckley, Larry J.; de Queiroz, Kevin; Grant, Tandora D.; Hollingsworth, Bradford D.; Iverson, John B.; Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Stephen, Catherine L.; Iverson, John B.; Grant, Tandora D.; et al. (2016)
      This annotated checklist of the world's iguanas (Iguanidae; Iguaninae) represents an update by the Iguana Taxonomy Working Group (ITWG) of its 2011 list. We recognize 44 extant species (19 subspecies across six species) in eight genera....
    • A diversity of biogeographies in an extreme Amazonian wetland habitat

      Householder, Ethan; Janovec, John; Tobler, Mathias W.; Wittmann, Florian; Myster, Randall W. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017)
      Amazonian wetlands are associated with lower species diversity relative to surrounding terra firme forests, as well as compositional turnover along strong hydro-edaphic gradients. Because species differ in their ecophysiological response to soil waterlogging, hydrological regime is likely a major determinant of the local diversity, species distribution and assemblage of plant communities in wetland habitats....
    • Advancing laboratory-based zoo research to enhance captive breeding of southern white rhinoceros

      Tubbs, Christopher W.; Minteer, Ben A.; Maienschein, Jane; Collins, James P. (University of Chicago PressChicago, IL, 2018)
      The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR) is not currently self-sustaining because of low fertility of captive-born females. The cause of this phenomenon is believed to be high dietary levels of phytoestrogens; endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) produced by plants that can mimic the reproductive hormone estrogen....
    • After the installation

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Lange, Jimmy; Coffey, Emily; Forbes, Holly; Ceska, Jennifer; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      A reintroduction will have a higher chance of successful establishment if it receives water and weeding after installation. Keeping land managers apprised of the performance of the rare species and engaging them in active site management is critical for long-term population persistence.
    • Alternatives to conventional seed banking: Introduction

      Maschinski, Joyce; Pence, Valerie; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      For exceptional (or non-orthodox) plants that cannot be conserved long-term using conventional seed banking methods, three alternatives traditionally used by botanical gardens are tissue culture, cryogenic storage, and field genebanks. (See Overview.) Each requires different institutional commitment to space, resources, staff time, and expertise....
    • Amphibian chytridiomycosis

      Pessier, Allan P.; Divers, S.; Mader, D. (ElsevierSt. Louis, 2014)
    • Animal cytogenetics

      Houck, Marlys L.; Lear, Teri L.; Charter, Suellen J.; Arsham, Marilyn S.; Barch, Margaret J.; Lawce, Helen J. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017)
      Chromosome karyotyping and gene mapping has been carried out for a wide variety of animal species and continues to expand. Cross-species chromosome painting, or Zoo-FISH, for example, can now be used to identify genome segments originating from a common ancestor that have been conserved between species for millions of years....
    • Annual variation in breeding success and changes in population density of Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Lago Preto Conservation Concession, Peru

      Bowler, Mark; Barton, C.; McCann-Wood, S.; Puertas, P.; Bodmer, R.; Veiga, Liza M.; Barnett, Adrian A.; Ferrari, Stephen F.; Norconk, Marilyn A. (Cambridge University PressCambridge, 2013)
    • Appendix 4: Annotated bibliography of books, journals, and web sites on captive management.

      Kenyon Barboza, K.; Coates, Linda L.; Kleiman, Devra G. (University of Chicago Press, 2010)
      ...Wild Mammals in Captivity presents the most current thinking and practice in the care and management of wild mammals in zoos and other institutions. In one comprehensive volume, the editors have gathered the most current information from studies of animal behavior; advances in captive breeding; research in physiology, genetics, and nutrition; and new thinking in animal management and welfare.....
    • Applications of animal behavior to conservation

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Greggor, Alison L.; Choe, Jae (Academic PressOxford, UK, 2019)
      Animal behavior can influence conservation outcomes, and can be used as a tool for diagnosing anthropogenic impacts and managing species’ recovery. Researchers from disparate backgrounds in animal behavior, most notably behavioral ecology and applied ethology, are using their research to contribute to conservation efforts, including reserve design, human disturbance, and reintroduction programs....
    • Bear Sensory Systems

      Sergiel, Agnieszka; Van Horn, Russell C.; Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (Springer International PublishingCham, 2019)
      The world’s bears evolved and diverged beginning about 20-25 million years ago. The surviving eight bear species live in diverse habitats whose physical characteristics create challenges that have influenced the evolution of bears’ sensory systems: vision, hearing, smell, touch, and taste....
    • Bears within the human landscape: Cultural and demographic factors influencing the use of bear parts in Cambodia and Laos

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Glikman, Jenny A.; Nevin, Owen; Convery, Ian; Davis, Peter (BoydellNewcastle, UK, 2019)
      Bears in Southeast Asia are declining across their range, primarily due to demand for their products, compounded by habitat loss. Although this decline has been observed in Cambodia and Laos, little research had been performed into in-country demand for bear products....
    • Bovidae, Antilocapridae, Giraffidae, Tragulidae, Hippopotamidae

      Jones, Megan E. B.; Gasper, D.J.; Mitchell, E.; Terio, Karen A.; McAloose, Denise; St. Leger, Judy (Academic PressSan Diego, CA, 2018)
    • Cathemeral

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Donati, Giuseppe; Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (Springer NatureNew York, 2019)
      Within this encyclopedia article, we provide an overview of the term “Cathemeral”. This is applied to the pattern of an organism’s activity that occurs during both the light and dark portions of the 24-h cycle....
    • Change: Risks and predictability

      Hobohm, Carsten; Vanderplank, Sula E.; Hobohm, Carsten; Cabin, Robert J. (Springer International PublishingCham, Switzerland, 2021)
      ...This study deals with the question of how stochastic effects, changing ecological conditions, the introduction of alien species, and dramatic events in general, can be characterized and quantified. We propose some initial ideas for the establishment of an indicator system for constancy and change through time, with respect to the effect size....
    • Classical cytogenetics: Karyotyping

      Houck, Marlys L.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Peterson, Suzanne E. (ElsevierLondon, 2012)
      Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are arguably the most stable normal diploid cells that can be maintained in long-term culture. However, aneuploidies and other chromosomal abnormalities do occur with time in culture. Aneuploidy in mouse ESC lines invariably results in their failure to contribute to the germline in chimeric animals. But since this ultimate test of normalcy cannot be applied to human PSCs, the cultures must be routinely evaluated for chromosomal abnormalities....
    • Cleaning, processing, drying, and storing orthodox seeds

      Walters, Christina; Maschinski, Joyce; Havens, Kay; Vitt, Pati; Heineman, Katherine D.; Horn, Christa M.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      The old adage “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” applies to seed banking. Divide each accession and store each half at a different safe seed banking facility. Create curation packages to place inside storage packages. Seeds in curation packages can be used for testing initial and long-term viability. Seeds in storage packages are intended to be stored long-term.
    • Collecting and maintaining exceptional species in tissue culture and cryopreservation

      Pence, Valerie; Westwood, Murphy; Maschinski, Joyce; Powell, Christy; Sugii, Nellie; Fish, Diana; McGuinness, Julianne; Raven, Pat; Duval, Julian; Herrera-Mishler, Tomas; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Tissue culture and cryopreservation are alternative storage methods for exceptional species that produce few seeds or seed that are intolerant to drying or freezing. Adequately storing exceptional species requires specialized expertise, infrastructure, and greater resources than conventional seed storage....
    • Collecting seeds from wild rare plant populations

      Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; Guerrant, Ed; Murray, Sheila; Kunz, Michael; Schneider, Heather; Affolter, Jim; Gurnoe, Tony; Fraga, Naomi; Havens, Kay; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Species characteristics, legal parameters, and the purpose of the collection influence decisions about timing, locations, and numbers of seeds (or other tissues) that will need to be collected. Ethics of doing no harm to the wild rare plant population guide actions in the field....