• Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Adult Notophthalmus viridescens in North-Central Alabama, USA

      Bakkegard, Kristin; Pessier, Allan P.; (2010)
      ...We report on a haphazard collection of dead adult Notophthalmus viridescens discovered during a field zoology class trip conducted by KAB in Birmingham, Alabama....
    • Bear Sensory Systems

      Sergiel, Agnieszka; Van Horn, Russell C.; Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (Springer International PublishingCham, 2019)
      The world’s bears evolved and diverged beginning about 20-25 million years ago. The surviving eight bear species live in diverse habitats whose physical characteristics create challenges that have influenced the evolution of bears’ sensory systems: vision, hearing, smell, touch, and taste....
    • Bears within the human landscape: Cultural and demographic factors influencing the use of bear parts in Cambodia and Laos

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Glikman, Jenny A.; Nevin, Owen; Convery, Ian; Davis, Peter (BoydellNewcastle, UK, 2019)
      Bears in Southeast Asia are declining across their range, primarily due to demand for their products, compounded by habitat loss. Although this decline has been observed in Cambodia and Laos, little research had been performed into in-country demand for bear products....
    • Behavior coding and ethogram of Guizhou snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi)

      Cui, Duoying; Niu, K.; Tan, Chia L.; Yang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yang, Y. (2014)
      We observed the behavior processes and habitats of free-ranging Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve (FNNR) and captive Guizhousnub-nosed monkeys in Wildlife Rescue Center in FNNR and Beijing Zoo from October 2009 to April 2014…. We found that there were some behavioral differences among Guizhou snub-nosed monkey, Sichuan snub-nosed monkey and Yunnan snub-nosed monkey in individual and social behaviors, and these might be related to the different habitats.
    • Behavioral adaptations of a large carnivore to human activity in an extremely arid landscape

      Barocas, Adi; Hefner R.; Ucko M.; Merkle J. A.; Geffen Eli (2018)
      Abstract Driven by the availability of food subsidies and landscape transformation, large carnivore populations are increasingly inhabiting the vicinity of humans. To persist in human proximity, while avoiding conflict and mortality, they must make adjustments in their spatial behavior....
    • Behavioral audiogram of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): Preliminary results

      Owen, Megan A.; Keating, Jennifer L.; Denes, Samuel L.; Hawk, Kathy; Boroski, Juli; Fiore, Angela; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2011)
      We used behavioral techniques to assess the hearing sensitivity of four, critically endangered, giant pandas at the San Diego Zoo. Study subjects included one adult male (age 19), two adult females (ages 5 and 19), and one sub-adult female (age 3)…. Hearing sensitivity data will enhance the understanding of how anthropogenic noise may impact both free-ranging and captive giant pandas.
    • Behavioral diversity as a potential indicator of positive animal welfare

      Miller, Lance J.; Vicino, Greg A.; Sheftel, Jessica; Lauderdale, Lisa K. (2020)
      Modern day zoos and aquariums continuously assess the welfare of their animals and use evidence to make informed management decisions. Historically, many of the indicators of animal welfare used to assess the collection are negative indicators of welfare, such as stereotypic behavior. However, a lack of negative indicators of animal welfare does not demonstrate that an individual animal is thriving. There is a need for validated measures of positive animal welfare and there is a growing body of evidence that supports the use of behavioral diversity as a positive indicator of welfare. This includes an inverse relationship with stereotypic behavior as well as fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and is typically higher in situations thought to promote positive welfare. This review article highlights previous research on behavioral diversity as a potential positive indicator of welfare. Details are provided on how to calculate behavioral diversity and how to use it when evaluating animal welfare. Finally, the review will indicate how behavioral diversity can be used to inform an evidence-based management approach to animal care and welfare.
    • Benefits of overwintering in the conservation breeding and translocation of a critically endangered amphibian

      Calatayud, Natalie E.; Hammond, Talisin T.; Gardner, Nicole R.; Curtis, Michelle J.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Shier, Debra M. (2020)
      At high altitudes, amphibians brumate (over winter) during the winter months, an adaptation that provides protection from harsh weather and minimizes metabolic demand when food resources are scarce. However, brumation in ex situ populations is often avoided due to concerns regarding slow growth rates, compromised immunity, and increased morbidity, and to accelerate growth and sexual maturation. Running counter to these ideas is the hypothesis that husbandry that mimics the environmental conditions under which a species evolved may benefit animal health and reproduction. This may be particularly critical for animals slated for release into the wild. Here, we evaluated the effects of brumation on juvenile southern mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in a conservation breeding and release program. Growth measurements, (weight and snout-urostyle length [SUL]), were examined in three experimental groups: Nonbrumated, 1 or 3-month brumation. Postrelease survival was also analyzed and compared between nonbrumated and 3-month brumated frogs. This study indicates that brumated R. muscosa juveniles grow to sizes and weights similar to controls within 3 to 4 months following brumation. Mark-recapture models suggested that short-term postrelease survival was not lower and in fact, may be higher in brumated compared to nonbrumated frogs. Results of this study indicate that although brumation entails short-term costs to growth, this species possesses compensatory growth mechanisms following brumation which allow them to attain similar body size to nonbrumated conspecifics in time for the next winter and that for frogs destined for translocation to the wild, brumation could improve survival outcomes.
    • Betsileo woolly lemur (Avahi betsileo). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence of this species covers less than 1,470 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
    • Beyond masking: Endangered Stephen's kangaroo rats respond to traffic noise with footdrumming

      Shier, Debra M.; Lea, Amanda J.; Owen, Megan A. (2012)
      ... Roads and road margins on and off reserves serve as dispersal corridors and refugia for SKR and other semifossorial taxa; these areas may therefore function as ecological traps if anthropogenic roadway noise negatively affects population persistence.
    • Beyond masking: Endangered Stephen’s kangaroo rats respond to traffic noise with footdrumming

      Shier, Debra M.; Lea, Amanda J.; Owen, Megan A. (2012)
      ...Because many species rely on low-frequency signals to communicate with conspecifics, they are likely to be especially vulnerable to signal masking and the concomitant biological effects associated with exposure to traffic noise. Here, we show that the spectral characteristics of traffic noise overlap extensively with footdrumming signals of the endangered Stephens’ kangaroo rat (Dipodomys stephensi; SKR)....
    • Biosphere reserve to transshipment Port: Travesty for Jamaica's Goat Islands.

      Grant, Tandora D. (2014)
      You know what is a huge bummer? Being a part of an amazing conservation success story to recover a species, only to reach the point where all those efforts appear lost. I know I’m not the only conservationist who has fought similar battles — many losing, but occasionally winning. I still have hope that reason will prevail and my colleagues and I can make further progress toward true recovery and the long-term goals of sustainability. The Jamaican Iguana (Cyclura collei) is a really big lizard that was thought to have been extinct for 40-something years when a small number of individuals were found in the rugged limestone interior of the Hellshire Hills on the southern coast of Jamaica…
    • Black lemur (Eulemur macaco). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Andriantsimanarilafy, R.R; Borgerson, C.; Clarke, T; Colquhoun, I.C; Cotton, A; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Heriniaina, R; Irwin, M; Johnson, S; et al. (2020)
      The range of the species is severely fragmented and remaining areas of forest are under anthropogenic pressure (Mittermeier et al. 2010, Tinsman et al. 2019). Given this, and that the overall population size is suspected to be in decline at a rate of >50% over three generations, the current assessment lists Eulemur macaco as Endangered.
    • Blood Lead Levels in Captive Giant Pandas

      Wintle, Nathan J. P.; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S.; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hemin (2018)
      Fifteen giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Chinese Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Bifengxia, Sichuan, China were analyzed for blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) during the 2017 breeding season. Thirteen of the 15 bears showed Pb-B below the method detection limit (MDL) of 3.3 µg/dL....
    • Body size and sexual selection in the koala

      Ellis, William A.; Bercovitch, Fred B. (2011)
      ...Koalas are sexually dimorphic in multiple domains, yet are absent from the literature on sexual selection and the structure of their mating system is unclear. We provide the first documentation of the strength of sexual selection in koalas by using microsatellite markers to identify sires....
    • Body size, demography, and body condition in Ctenosaura bakeri

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Montgomery, C.E.; Martinez, A.; Belal, N.; Clayson, S.; Faulkner, S. (2012)
      Abstract.—Utila Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Ctenosaura bakeri, are listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN Redlist Assessment and are listed under Appendix II of CITES. This species occupies a portion of Utila, a small continental island located off the northern coast of Honduras, in the Bay Islands chain. Habitat destruction and overharvesting for consumption and the pet trade are among the top threats facing this species. Though first described in 1901 (Stejneger) and currently the focus of a local conservation program, little is known concerning that basic biology of this species. Combining data from six years we examined body size, sexual size dimorphism, and changes in demography and body condition over the study period. Our results indicate that males are larger and heavier than females on average, and have a longer tail for a given snout-vent length, as is the case with most iguanas. Over the study period we found an increase in the ratio of males to females, suggesting that female biased hunting pressure is increasing. This is consistent with an increase in the human population size and a preference for consuming gravid females. The body condition of both males and females declined over the duration of the study, which is suggestive of a decrease in habitat quality. These results indicate that the situation for this endangered species is becoming increasingly threatening. Conservation measures should focus on alleviating these threats through increased law enforcement, outreach, and education.
    • Body size, demography, and body condition in Utila spiny-tailed iguanas, Ctenosaura bakeri

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Montgomery, Chad E; Martinez, Andrea; Belal, Nardiah; Clayson, Steve; Faulkner, Shane (2012)
      Utila Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Ctenosaura bakeri, are listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN Redlist Assessment and are listed under Appendix II of CITES. This species occupies a portion of Utila, a small continental island located off the northern coast of Honduras, in the Bay Islands chain. Habitat destruction and overharvesting for consumption and the pet trade are among the top threats facing this species. Though first described in 1901 (Stejneger) and currently the focus of a local conservation program, little is known concerning that basic biology of this species. Combining data from six years we examined body size, sexual size dimorphism, and changes in demography and body condition over the study period. Our results indicate that males are larger and heavier than females on average, and have a longer tail for a given snout-vent length, as is the case with most iguanas. Over the study period we found an increase in the ratio of males to females, suggesting that female biased hunting pressure is increasing. This is consistent with an increase in the human population size and a preference for consuming gravid females. The body condition of both males and females declined over the duration of the study, which is suggestive of a decrease in habitat quality. These results indicate that the situation for this endangered species is becoming increasingly threatening. Conservation measures should focus on alleviating these threats through increased law enforcement, outreach, and education.
    • Body size, not phylogenetic relationship or residency, drives interspecific dominance in a little pocket mouse community

      Chock, Rachel Y.; Shier, Debra M.; Grether, Gregory F. (2018)
      The role of interspecific aggression in structuring ecological communities can be important to consider when reintroducing endangered species to areas of their historic range that are occupied by competitors. We sought to determine which species is the most serious interference competitor of the endangered Pacific pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris pacificus, and more generally, whether interspecific aggression in rodents is predicted by body size, residency status or phylogenetic relatedness....
    • Body temperature and thermoregulation of Komodo dragons in the field

      Harlow, Henry J.; Purwandana, Deni; Jessop, Tim S.; Phillips, John A.; (2010)
      ...We found that all size groups of dragons regulated a similar preferred body temperature by exploiting a heterogeneous thermal environment within savanna, forest and mangrove habitats. All dragons studied, regardless of size, were able to regulate a daytime active body temperature within the range 34–35.6 °C for 5.1–5.6 h/day....
    • Bonobo personality traits are heritable and associated with vasopressin receptor gene 1a variation

      Staes, Nicky; Weiss, Alexander; Helsen, Philippe; Korody, Marisa L.; Eens, Marcel; Stevens, Jeroen M. G. (2016)
      Despite being closely related, bonobos and chimpanzees show remarkable behavioral differences, the proximate origins of which remain unknown. This study examined the link between behavioral variation and variation in the vasopressin 1a receptor gene (Avpr1a) in bonobos. Chimpanzees are polymorphic for a ~360bp deletion (DupB), which includes a microsatellite (RS3) in the 5′ promoter region of Avpr1a. In chimpanzees, the DupB deletion has been linked to lower sociability, lower social sensitivity, and higher anxiety. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ on these traits, leading some to believe that the absence of the DupB deletion in bonobos may be partly responsible for these differences, and to the prediction that similar associations between Avpr1a genotypes and personality traits should be present in bonobos. We identified bonobo personality dimensions using behavioral measures (SociabilityB, BoldnessB, OpennessB, ActivityB) and trait ratings (AssertivenessR, ConscientiousnessR, OpennessR, AgreeablenessR, AttentivenessR, ExtraversionR). In the present study we found that all 10 dimensions have nonzero heritabilities, indicating there is a genetic basis to personality, and that bonobos homozygous for shorter RS3 alleles were lower in AttentivenessR and higher in OpennessB. These results suggest that variations in Avpr1a genotypes explain both within and between species differences in personality traits of bonobos and chimpanzees.