• Identification of California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) estrogen receptor variants and their activation by xenoestrogens

      Felton, Rachel G.; Owen, Corie M.; Cossaboon, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Cynthia C.; Tubbs, Christopher W. (2020)
      California condors released in costal sites are exposed to high levels of xenoestrogens, particularly p,p'-DDE, through scavenging of marine mammal carcasses. As a result, coastal condors carry a higher contaminant loads and experience eggshell thinning when compared to their inland counterparts....
    • Identification of California condor estrogen receptors 1 and 2 and their activation by endocrine disrupting chemicals

      Felton, Rachel G.; Steiner, Cynthia C.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Keisler, Duane H.; Milnes, Matthew R.; Tubbs, Christopher W. (2015)
      ...There is evidence that coastal-dwelling condors experience reproductive issues, such as eggshell thinning, likely resulting from exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To address this problem, we have identified and cloned condor estrogen receptors (ESRs) 1 and 2 and characterized their activation by EDCs present in the coastal habitats where condors reside....
    • Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions

      Watkins, Paul A.; Moser, Ann B.; Toomer, Cicely B.; Steinberg, Steven J.; Moser, Hugo W.; Karaman, Mazen W.; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Lee, D. Rick; Ely, John J.; et al. (2010)
      It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. To investigate functional genomic consequences of these differences, we compared their physiological levels of phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid that can be derived from the microbial degradation of chlorophyll in ruminant guts. Humans who accumulate large stores of phytanic acid commonly develop cerebellar ataxia, peripheral polyneuropathy, and retinitis pigmentosa in addition to other medical conditions. Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism.
    • Identifying priority conservation landscapes and actions for the Critically Endangered Javan leopard in Indonesia: Conserving the last large carnivore in Java Island

      Wibisono, Hariyo Tabah; Wahyudi, Hariyawan Agung; Wilianto, Erwin; Pinondang, Irene Margareth Romaria; Primajati, Mahendra; Liswanto, Darmawan; Linkie, Matthew (2018)
      With the extirpation of tigers from the Indonesian island of Java in the 1980s, the endemic and Critically Endangered Javan leopard is the island’s last remaining large carnivore. Yet despite this, it has received little conservation attention and its population status and distribution remains poorly known. Using Maxent modeling, we predicted the locations of suitable leopard landscapes throughout the island of Java based on 228 verified Javan leopard samples and as a function of seven environmental variables. The identified landscapes covered over 1 million hectares, representing less than 9% of the island. Direct evidence of Javan leopard was confirmed from 22 of the 29 identified landscapes and included all national parks, which our analysis revealed as the single most important land type. Our study also emphasized the importance of maintaining connectivity between protected areas and human-modified landscapes because adjacent production forests and secondary forests were found to provide vital extensions for several Javan leopard subpopulations. Our predictive map greatly improves those previously produced by the Government of Indonesia’s Javan Leopard Action Plan and the IUCN global leopard distribution assessment. It shares only a 32% overlap with the IUCN range predictions, adds six new priority landscapes, all with confirmed presence of Javan leopard, and reveals an island-wide leopard population that occurs in several highly fragmented landscapes, which are far more isolated than previously thought. Our study provides reliable information on where conservation efforts must be prioritized both inside and outside of the protected area network to safeguard Java’s last remaining large carnivore.
    • Iguanas: Biology, Systematics, and Conservation

      Editors; Iverson, John B.; Grant, Tandora D.; Knapp, Charles R.; Pasachnik, Stesha A. (2016)
    • Illegal wildlife trade: Scale, processes, and governance

      Sas-Rolfes, Michael T.; Hinsley, Amy; Veríssimo, Diogo; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Challender, Daniel W. S. (2019)
      Illegal wildlife trade (IWT) has increased in profile in recent years as a global policy issue, largely because of its association with declines in prominent internationally trafficked species. In this review, we explore the scale of IWT, associated threats to biodiversity, and appropriate responses to these threats. We discuss the historical development of IWT research and highlight the uncertainties that plague the evidence base, emphasizing the need for more systematic approaches to addressing evidence gaps in a way that minimizes the risk of unethical or counterproductive outcomes for wildlife and people. We highlight the need for evaluating interventions in order to learn, and the importance of sharing datasets and lessons learned. A more collaborative approach to linking IWT research, practice, and policy would better align public policy discourse and action with research evidence. This in turn would enable more effective policy making that contributes to reducing the threat to biodiversity that IWT represents.
    • Immunocontraception of captive exotic species: v. prolonged antibody titers in dall sheep (ovis dalli dalli) and domestic goats (capra hircus) immunized with porcine zona pellucida

      Lyda, Robin O.; Frank, Kimberly M.; Wallace, Roberta; Lamberski, Nadine; Kirkpatrick, Jay F. (2013)
      Native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception has been used to inhibit fertility in more than 80 species of ungulates, although the duration of contraception efficacy varies among species in both Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. This study examined anti-PZP antibody titers in Dall sheep and domestic goats at the Milwaukee County Zoo, and also Himalayan tahr and Armenian Mouflon sheep at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and, for comparison, Altai wapiti, lowland wisent, Javan banteng, and southern pudu at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, all were given a primer dose and booster dose of PZP....
    • Immunomics of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Abts, Kendra C.; Ivy, Jamie A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew (2015)
      The study of the koala transcriptome has the potential to advance our understanding of its immunome—immunological reaction of a given host to foreign antigens—and to help combat infectious diseases (e.g., chlamydiosis) that impede ongoing conservation efforts….. Our efforts have produced full-length sequences for potentially important immune genes in koala, which should serve as targets for future investigations that aim to conserve koala populations.
    • Impact of ungulate exclusion on understorey succession in relation to forest management in the Intermountain Western United States

      Pekin, Burak K.; Endress, Bryan A.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Naylor, Bridgett J.; Parks, Catherine G. (2015)
      ...The strength and direction of specific vegetation and diversity responses to ungulate exclusion vary with forest management, and the influence of ungulate exclusion on plant succession is more pronounced in recently thinned and burned sites. Management of wild and domestic ungulates thus needs to account for forest management activities that alter vegetation seral stage and increase the sensitivity of vegetation to the ungulate grazing regime....
    • Impacts of early viability selection on management of inbreeding and genetic diversity in conservation

      Grueber, Catherine E.; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Ivy, Jamie A.; Belov, Katherine (2015)
      Maintaining genetic diversity is a crucial goal of intensive management of threatened species, particularly for those populations that act as sources for translocation or re‐introduction programmes. Most captive genetic management is based on pedigrees and a neutral theory of inheritance, an assumption that may be violated by selective forces operating in captivity. Here, we explore the conservation consequences of early viability selection: differential offspring survival that occurs prior to management or research observations, such as embryo deaths in utero....
    • Impacts of natural history and exhibit factors on carnivore welfare

      Miller, Lance J.; Ivy, Jamie A.; Vicino, Greg A.; Schork, Ivana G. (2019)
      To improve the welfare of nonhuman animals under professional care, zoological institutions are continuously utilizing new methods to identify factors that lead to optimal welfare. Comparative methods have historically been used in the field of evolutionary biology but are increasingly being applied in the field of animal welfare....
    • Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification

      Meredith, R.W.; Janecka, J.E.; Gatesy, J.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, C.A.; Teeling, E.C.; Goodbla, A.; Eizirik, E.; Simao, T.L.L.; Stadler, T.; et al. (2011)
      ...We constructed a molecular supermatrix for mammalian families and analyzed these data with likelihood-based methods and relaxed molecular clocks. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in a robust phylogeny with better resolution than phylogenies from supertree methods....
    • Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise

      Germano, Jennifer M.; Van Zerr, Vanessa E.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Ken E.; Lamberski, Nadine (2014)
      Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense....
    • Implementing the reintroduction

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Good logistical preparation will make installation day run smoothly. Ensure that the plants or seed plots are labeled, mapped, and recorded in such a way that they can be monitored for many years into the future.
    • Implications of different species concepts for conserving biodiversity

      Frankham, Richard; Ballou, Jonathan D.; Dudash, Michele R.; Eldridge, Mark D.B.; Fenster, Charles B.; Lacy, Robert C.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Porton, Ingrid J.; Ralls, Katherine; Ryder, Oliver A. (2012)
      The ~26 definitions of species often yield different numbers of species and disparate groupings, with financial, legal, biological and conservation implications. Using conservation genetic considerations, we demonstrate that different species concepts have a critical bearing on our ability to conserve species.... Consequently, we conclude that the diagnostic phylogenetic species concept is unsuitable for use in conservation contexts, especially for classifying allopatric populations.
    • Implications of population and metapopulation theory for restoration science and practice

      Maschinski, Joyce; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F (Springer, 2016)
    • Improving success of rare plant seed reintroductions: a case study of Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana, a rare legume with dormant seeds

      Maschinski, Joyce; Possley, Jennifer; Walters, Christina; Hill, Lisa; Krueger, Lisa; Hazelton, Dallas (2018)
      Recent reviews of rare plant reintroduction success indicate that far fewer studies have been conducted with seeds than whole plants, and of these, less than 10% have established or had long-term population persistence reported. Because seed reintroductions are relatively less expensive than plant reintroductions, determining ways to increase efficacy of using seeds to establish rare populations has conservation benefits....
    • Improving the sustainability of ex situ populations with mate choice

      Martin-Wintle, Meghan S.; Wintle, Nathan J. P.; Díez-León, María; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Asa, Cheryl S. (2019)
      Many breeding programs managed by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums’ (AZA) Species Survival Plans® (SSPs) are not meeting goals for population size and genetic diversity due to failure of recommended pairs to breed successfully....
    • In Memory of Kurt Benirschke, MD: Pioneer in mammalian cytogenetics, founder of the Frozen Zoo®, and champion of comparative medicine

      Ryder, Oliver A. (2019)
      Kurt Benirschke, MD, was born on May 26, 1924, in Glückstadt, Germany and died on September 10, 2018 in La Jolla, California. Known to the broader genetics community as a pioneering investigator in the field of comparative mammalian cytogenetics, Benirschke’s scientific accomplishments spanned several fields....
    • In-air auditory psychophysics and the management of a threatened carnivore, the polar bear (Ursus maritimus)

      Owen, Megan A.; AE, Bowles (2011)
      Management criteria for preventing biologically-significant noise disturbance in large terrestrial mammals have not been developed based on a sound, empirical understanding of their sensory ecology. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal denning areas on the coastal plain of Alaska’s North Slope hold large petroleum reserves and will be subject to increased development in the future. Anthropogenic noise could adversely affect polar bears by disrupting intra-specific communication, altering habitat use, or causing behavioral and physiological stress. However, little is known about the hearing of any large, carnivorous mammal, including bears; so, management criteria currently in use to protect denning female polar bears may or may not be proportionate and effective. As part of a comprehensive effort to develop efficient, defensible criteria we used behavioral psycho acousticmethods to test in-air hearing sensitivity of five polar bears at frequencies between 125 Hz and 31.5kHz. Results showed best sensitivity between 8 and 14 kHz. Sensitivity declined sharply between 14and 25 kHz, suggesting an upper limit of hearing 10-20 kHz below that of small carnivores. Low frequency sensitivity was comparable to that of the domestic dog, and a decline in functional hearingwas observed at 125 Hz. Thresholds will be used to develop efficient exposure metrics, which will be needed increasingly as the Arctic is developed and effects of disturbance are intensified by anticipated declines in polar bear health and reproduction associated with climate change driven sea ice losses.