• Macroevolutionary dynamics and historical biogeography of primate diversification inferred from a species supermatrix

      Springer, Mark S.; Meredith, Robert W.; Gatesy, John; Emerling, Christopher A.; Park, Jong; Rabosky, Daniel L.; Stadler, Tanja; Steiner, Cynthia C.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Janečka, Jan E.; et al. (2012)
      Phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and patterns of biogeographic descent among primate species are both complex and contentious. Here, we generate a robust molecular phylogeny for 70 primate genera and 367 primate species based on a concatenation of 69 nuclear gene segments and ten mitochondrial gene sequences, most of which were extracted from GenBank. Relaxed clock analyses of divergence times with 14 fossil-calibrated nodes suggest that living Primates last shared a common ancestor 71–63 Ma, and that divergences within both Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini are entirely post-Cretaceous. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs played an important role in the diversification of placental mammals. Previous queries into primate historical biogeography have suggested Africa, Asia, Europe, or North America as the ancestral area of crown primates, but were based on methods that were coopted from phylogeny reconstruction. By contrast, we analyzed our molecular phylogeny with two methods that were developed explicitly for ancestral area reconstruction, and find support for the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of living Primates resided in Asia. Analyses of primate macroevolutionary dynamics provide support for a diversification rate increase in the late Miocene, possibly in response to elevated global mean temperatures, and are consistent with the fossil record. By contrast, diversification analyses failed to detect evidence for rate-shift changes near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary even though the fossil record provides clear evidence for a major turnover event (“Grande Coupure”) at this time. Our results highlight the power and limitations of inferring diversification dynamics from molecular phylogenies, as well as the sensitivity of diversification analyses to different species concepts.
    • Male European badger churrs: Insights into call function and motivational basis

      Charlton, Benjamin D.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Buesching, Christina D. (2020)
      Determining the contexts of emission and information content of vocal signals can yield insights into the function of different call types, and remains an important step towards understanding the diversification of mammalian vocal repertoires. In this study, we used infra-red video cameras and remote audio recorders to document seasonal and contextual variation in male European badger (Meles meles) churr production over a 24-month period, and acoustic analysis based on source-filter theory to examine whether churr acoustic structure varies according to the caller’s arousal state and identity….
    • Male-male affiliation and cooperation characterize the social behavior of the large-bodied pitheciids, Chiropotes and Cacajao: A review

      Gregory, Tremaine; Bowler, Mark (2016)
      …In this review of recent studies of male-male social interactions in Chiropotes and Cacajao, we posit that the ability to maintain large groups in these genera may be related to the affiliative and perhaps coalitionary relationships between males, who may or may not be related. Affiliative male-male relationships may allow for monopolization of groups of females and facilitate group cohesion by reducing intragroup aggression; however data on male-male interactions with identified individuals will be required to determine patterns of affiliation, while genetic studies may be the most practical way of determining dispersal patterns for these genera….
    • Management of neonatal mammals

      Frazier, H. B.; Hawes, Janet; Michelson, K. J. (University of Chicago PressChicago, Illinois, 2013)
      Techniques and philosophies regarding neonatal care of zoo animals continue to evolve. The cornerstone of neonatal care should be reproduction in species- appropriate family groups that meets the physical and behavioral needs of zoo animals and supports healthy and sustainable captive populations. Historically, zoo infant care practices have included removing infants or neonates from their dams for hand-rearing to “tame” them for public programs, to increase reproduction, or to decrease infant mortality caused by parental neglect....
    • Managing for interpopulation connectivity of the world’s bear species

      Proctor, Michael F.; Dutta, Trishna; McLellan, Bruce N.; Rangel, Shaenandhoa Garcia; Paetkau, Dave; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Zedrosser, Andreas; Melletti, Mario; Penteriani, Vincenzo (Cambridge University PressCambridge, 2020)
      … Here the current status of fragmentation, connectivity, methods, consequences, and management of the world’s eight bear species is reviewed. The metapopulation paradigm is also considered, i.e. are bears being forced into some form of functioning metapopulation or are they simply being fragmented into a series of isolated populations that, without conservation action, will likely be slowly extirpated, population by population?
    • Mapping open space in an old-growth, secondary-growth, and selectively-logged tropical rainforest using discrete return LIDAR

      Jung, Jinha; Pekin, Burak K.; Pijanowski, Bryan C. (2013)
      Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is a valuable tool for mapping vegetation structure in dense forests. Although several LIDAR-derived metrics have been proposed for characterizing vertical forest structure in previous studies, none of these metrics explicitly measure open space, or vertical gaps, under a forest canopy. We develop new LIDAR metrics that characterize vertical gaps within a forest for use in forestry and forest management applications....
    • Mapping the ecological footprint of large livestock overlapping with wildlife in Kenyan pastoralist landscapes

      O'Connor, David; Butt, Bilal; Foufopoulos, Johannes B. (2016)
      ...This study examines the efficacy using GPS collars to measure the spatial ecology and browsing orbits of camels in a pastoralist setting (primarily cattle and camels) as a means to measure overlap with wildlife....
    • Mark-recapture accurately estimates census for Tuatara, a burrowing reptile

      Moore, J.A.; Grant, Tandora D.; Brown, D.; Keall, S.N.; Nelson, N.J.; (2010)
      Estimates of population size are necessary for effective management of threatened and endangered species, but accurate estimation is often difficult when species are cryptic. We evaluated effectiveness of mark–recapture techniques using the Lincoln–Peterson estimator for predicting true census size of a population of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), a burrowing reptile that is a conservation priority in New Zealand....
    • Mass loss rates of fasting polar bears

      Pilfold, Nicholas W.; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Richardson, Evan (2016)
      Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased....
    • Mating strategies

      Steyaert, Sam M.J.G.; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Filipczykova, Eva; Crudge, Brian; Dutta, Trishna; Sharma, Sandeep; Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Koike, Shinsuke; Leclerc, Martin; et al. (Cambridge University PressCambridge, 2020)
      The mating system and mating strategies of a species refer to the behavioral strategies used to obtain reproductive partners and ensure reproductive success. Common determining factors of mating systems and strategies are: the manner of mate acquisition, the number of mates obtained by an individual, as well as the absence or presence and duration of parental care….
    • Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps: Composition, structure and implications for conservation and management

      Endress, Bryan A.; Horn, Christa M.; Gilmore, Michael P. (2013)
      Swamp forests dominated by the dioecious palm, Mauritia flexuosa, cover vast areas of the Amazon Basin and are poorly studied despite their recognized ecological and economic importance. This knowledge gap confounds current conservation and management efforts. In this study, we documented overstory structure and composition of M. flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) as part of a broader effort to understand their ecology and assist in developing best practices for multi-use management for the Maijuna, an indigenous group in Loreto, Peru.…
    • Measuring behavior change in Bangladesh

      LaCombe, Corrin; Danoff-Burg, James A. (2013)
      Behavioral change via environmental education is a fundamental cornerstone of conservation (Jacobson and McDuff, 1998) as the majority of environmental threats are the result of human activities. Changes in human behavior can be challenging to accurately capture and measure. Using a case study from Bangladesh, we share an example of one way that behavioral change (reduction in littering) was successfully measured as part of a larger hoolock gibbon-focused conservation education program.
    • Medical management of walk-through aviaries

      Clancy, Meredith M. (ElsevierSt. Louis, MO, 2019)
    • Metabolic bone disease in juvenile koalas (phascolartcos cinereus)

      Pye, Geoffrey W.; Gait, Sarah Catherine; Mulot, Baptiste; de Asua, Maria Delclaux Real; Martinez-Nevado, Eva; Bonar, Christopher J.; Baines, Stephen J.; Baines, Elizabeth A. (2013)
      Due to climate restrictions in parts of North America and Europe, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are housed indoors. Koala young (joeys) raised indoors are susceptible to the development of metabolic bone disease (MBD) due to a lack of exposure to natural ultraviolet light to themselves and their female paren....
    • Metabolome-informed microbiome analysis refines metadata classifications and reveals unexpected medication transfer in captive cheetahs

      Gauglitz, Julia M.; Morton, James T.; Tripathi, Anupriya; Hansen, Shalisa; Gaffney, Michele; Carpenter, Carolina; Weldon, Kelly C.; Shah, Riya; Parampil, Amy; Fidgett, Andrea; et al. (2020)
      Even high-quality collection and reporting of study metadata in microbiome studies can lead to various forms of inadvertently missing or mischaracterized information that can alter the interpretation or outcome of the studies, especially with nonmodel organisms. Metabolomic profiling of fecal microbiome samples can provide empirical insight into unanticipated confounding factors that are not possible to obtain even from detailed care records. We illustrate this point using data from cheetahs from the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. The metabolomic characterization indicated that one cheetah had to be moved from the non-antibiotic-exposed group to the antibiotic-exposed group. The detection of the antibiotic in this second cheetah was likely due to grooming interactions with the cheetah that was administered antibiotics. Similarly, because transit time for stool is variable, fecal samples within the first few days of antibiotic prescription do not all contain detected antibiotics, and the microbiome is not yet affected. These insights significantly altered the way the samples were grouped for analysis (antibiotic versus no antibiotic) and the subsequent understanding of the effect of the antibiotics on the cheetah microbiome. Metabolomics also revealed information about numerous other medications and provided unexpected dietary insights that in turn improved our understanding of the molecular patterns on the impact on the community microbial structure. These results suggest that untargeted metabolomic data provide empirical evidence to correct records and aid in the monitoring of the health of nonmodel organisms in captivity, although we also expect that these methods may be appropriate for other social animals, such as cats.
    • Methods of estrus detection and correlates of the reproductive cycle in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus)

      Frederick, Cheryl; Kyes, Randall; Hunt, Kathleen; Collins, Darin; Durrant, Barbara S.; Wasser, Samuel K.; (2010)
      The objective was to explore multiple methods for detecting and characterizing the reproductive cycle of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). Thirteen H. m. euryspilus females, loaned from the Malaysian government to US zoos, were used....
    • Migratory response of polar bears to sea ice loss: to swim or not to swim

      Pilfold, Nicholas W.; McCall, Alysa; Derocher, Andrew E.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Richardson, Evan (2017)
      Migratory responses to climate change may vary across and within populations, particularly for species with large geographic ranges. An increase in the frequency of long-distance swims (> 50 km) is one predicted consequence of climate change for polar bears Ursus maritimus....
    • Miller-Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy

      Miller, R. Eric; Lamberski, Nadine; Calle, Paul; Miller, R. Eric; Lamberski, Nadine; Calle, Paul (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2019)
      Bringing together a globally diverse range of timely topics related to zoo and wild animals, Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Volume 9 is an invaluable tool for any professional working directly with wildlife and zoo animals. The text’s user-friendly format guides readers through biology, anatomy, and special physiology; reproduction; restraint and handling; housing requirements; nutrition and feeding; surgery and anesthesia; diagnostics, and therapeutics for each animal....
    • Mitigation-driven translocations: are we moving wildlife in the right direction?

      Germano, Jennifer M.; Field, Kimberleigh J; Griffiths, Richard A; Clulow, Simon; Foster, Jim; Harding, Gemma; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2015)
      Despite rapid growth in the field of reintroduction biology, results from scientific research are often not applied to translocations initiated when human land‐use change conflicts with the continued persistence of a species' population at a particular site....
    • Mixing genetically differentiated populations successfully boosts diversity of an endangered carnivore

      McLennan, E. A.; Grueber, Catherine E.; Wise, P.; Belov, K.; Hogg, Carolyn J. (2020)
      …We used an introduced population of Tasmanian devils Sarcophilus harrisii descended from two genetically differentiated source populations to illustrate the benefits of genetic admixture for translocation programmes. Devils are endangered due to an infectious cancer causing 80% population declines across their range since disease emergence in 1996…. As part of their conservation management, devils were introduced to Maria Island, Tasmania in an assisted colonization in 2012 with supplementations in 2013 and 2017….