• Uncover the unrevealed data: the magnitude of Javan leopard removal from the wild

      Adhiasto, D.N.; Wilianto, E.; Wibisono, Hariyo Tabah (2020)
    • Understanding attitudes and usage of wild bear parts in Laos and Cambodia: A preliminary study using citizen scientists

      O’Connor, David; Crudge, B.; Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Hunt, M.; Harris, J.; Browne-Nuñez, C.; Pesei, K.; Blint, E. (2015)
    • Understanding local folklore and attitudes in Apennine brown bear conservation

      Glikman, Jenny A.; Frank, Beatrice; Nevin, Owen; Convery, Ian; Davis, Peter (Boydell & BrewerNewcastle, UK, 2019)
    • Understanding sensory mechanisms to develop effective conservation and management tools

      Blumstein, Daniel T; Berger-Tal, Oded (2015)
      ...We review recent insights and describe future challenges in using and evaluating sensory mechanisms within a conservation behavior framework....
    • Understanding the prevalence of bear part consumption in Cambodia: A comparison of specialised questioning techniques

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Crudge, Brian; Lim, Thona; O'Connor, David; Roth, Vichet; Hunt, Matt; Glikman, Jenny A. (2019)
      The trade in bear parts for medicine and for status is a conservation challenge throughout Asia. The Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) are endemic to this region, and populations are estimated to have declined throughout their ranges due to widespread illegal killing of bears and trade in parts, combined with loss of habitat. Previous studies have indicated that legislation alone is insufficient to prevent illegal hunting and trade, indicating instead a need to address demand for bear parts and products. We conducted mixed-method surveys in Cambodia to understand the key motivators for individuals to consume bear parts, and to understand whether specialised questioning techniques are applicable in this context. Bear part use is illegal in Cambodia and may therefore be considered a sensitive behaviour, in that individuals may be reluctant to admit to it. To counteract possible biases, four specialised questioning techniques were used in this study: randomised response technique (RRT), unmatched count technique (UCT), nominative technique (NT), and false consensus bias (FCB). All four methods serve to shield a respondent’s admittance of a sensitive behaviour from the interviewer. The results presented here show that great variability exists in anonymous methods’ efficacy in certain contexts. However, the results overall indicate that individuals in Cambodia are under-reporting their consumption of bear parts when directly asked, and that the prevalence of bear part use in Cambodia may be as high as 15% of the population, representing a significant conservation challenge.
    • Unexpected positive and negative effects of continuing inbreeding in one of the world's most inbred wild animals

      Weiser Emily L.; Grueber, Catherine E.; Kennedy, Euan S.; Jamieson, Ian G. (2015)
      ...The Chatham Island black robin represents a case of extreme inbreeding following two severe population bottlenecks…. The positive and negative effects we found emphasize that continuing inbreeding can have important effects on individual fitness, even in populations that are already highly inbred....
    • Unexpected shallow genetic divergence in Turks Island boas (Epicrates c. chrysogaster) reveals single evolutionarily significant unit for conservation

      Reynolds, R.G.; Gerber, Glenn P.; Fitzpatrick, B.M. (2011)
      ... The subspecies has likely been extirpated from several islands in its historic range, and all remaining populations are threatened with extirpation owing to habitat loss, introduced feral predators, malicious killing, and vehicle strikes. To assist conservation efforts, we undertook a genetic analysis of 53 individual E. c. chrysogaster, representing five island populations, with the goal of identifying existing population structure and genetic diversity. For each snake sampled, we sequenced one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, resulting in 1591 bp of sequence, and screened nine microsatellite loci....
    • Ungulate browsing maintains shrub diversity in the absence of episodic disturbance in seasonally-arid conifer forest

      Pekin, Burak K.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Endress, Bryan A.; Naylor, Bridgett J.; Parks, Catherine G. (2014)
      Ungulates exert a strong influence on the composition and diversity of vegetation communities. However, little is known about how ungulate browsing pressure interacts with episodic disturbances such as fire and stand thinning. We assessed shrub responses to variable browsing pressure by cattle and elk in fuels treated (mechanical removal of fuels followed by prescribed burning) and non-fuels treated forest sites in northeastern Oregon, US. Seven treatment paddocks were established at each site; three with cattle exclusion and low, moderate and high elk browsing pressure, three with elk exclusion and low, moderate and high cattle browsing pressure, and one with both cattle and elk exclusion. The height, cover and number of stems of each shrub species were recorded at multiple plots within each paddock at the time of establishment and six years later. Changes in shrub species composition over the six year period were explored using multivariate analyses. Generalized Linear Mixed Models were used to determine the effect of browsing pressure on the change in shrub diversity and evenness. Vegetation composition in un-browsed paddocks changed more strongly and in different trajectories than in browsed paddocks at sites that were not fuels treated. In fuels treated sites, changes in composition were minimal for un-browsed paddocks. Shrub diversity and evenness decreased strongly in un-browsed paddocks relative to paddocks with low, moderate and high browsing pressure at non-fuels treated sites, but not at fuels treated sites. These results suggest that in the combined absence of fire, mechanical thinning and ungulate browsing, shrub diversity is reduced due to increased dominance by certain shrub species which are otherwise suppressed by ungulates and/or fuels removal. Accordingly, ungulate browsing, even at low intensities, can be used to suppress dominant shrub species and maintain diversity in the absence of episodic disturbance events.
    • Update on infectious diseases of amphibians: It isn't just red leg anymore

      Pessier, Allan P.; Divers, S.; Mader, D. (ElsevierSt. Louis, 2014)
    • Updated geographic range maps for giraffe, Giraffa spp., throughout sub-Saharan Africa, and implications of changing distributions for conservation

      O'Connor, David; Stacy-Dawes, Jenna; Muneza, Arthur; Fennessy, Julian; Gobush, Kathleen; Chase, Michael J.; Brown, Michael B.; Bracis, Chloe; Elkan, Paul; Zaberirou, Abdoul Razazk Moussa; et al. (2019)
      Giraffe populations have declined in abundance by almost 40% over the last three decades, and the geographic ranges of the species (previously believed to be one, now defined as four species) have been significantly reduced or altered. With substantial changes in land uses, loss of habitat, declining abundance, translocations, and data gaps, the existing geographic range maps for giraffe need to be updated. We performed a review of existing giraffe range data, including aerial and ground observations of giraffe, existing geographic range maps, and available literature. The information we collected was discussed with and validated by subject?matter experts. Our updates may serve to correct inaccuracies or omissions in the baseline map, or may reflect actual changes in the distribution of giraffe. Relative to the 2016 International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Assessment range map, the updated geographic range maps show a 5.6% decline in the range area of all giraffe taxa combined. The ranges of Giraffa camelopardalis (northern giraffe) and Giraffa tippelskirchi (Masai giraffe) decreased in area by 37% (122432 km2) and 4.7% (20816 km2) respectively, whereas 14% (41696 km2) of the range of Giraffa reticulata (reticulated giraffe) had not been included in the original geographic range map and has now been added. The range of Giraffa giraffa (southern giraffe) showed little overall change; it increased by 0.1% (419 km2). Ranges were larger than previously reported in six of the 21 range countries (Botswana, Ethiopia, Mozambique, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe), had declined in seven (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Malawi, Niger, Uganda, and Zambia) and remained unchanged in seven (Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, eSwatini, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, and South Africa). In Kenya, the ranges of both Giraffa tippelskirchi and Giraffa camelopardalis decreased, but the range of Giraffa reticulata was larger than previously believed. Our updated range maps increase existing knowledge, and are important for conservation planning for giraffe. However, since rapid infrastructure development throughout much of Africa is a driver of giraffe population declines, there is an urgent need for a continent?wide, consistent and systematic giraffe survey to produce more accurate range maps, in order to inform conservation and policy planning.
    • Urgent action needed: The forgotten forests of the Lavasoa-Ambatotsirongorongo Mountains, southeast Madagascar

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Refaly, Ernest; Tsagnangara, Cedric; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Donati, Giuseppe (2019)
      When we think of important areas of biodiversity within Madagascar, we tend to focus on the more well-known na-tional parks and special reserves. The truth is, however, that there are many small fragments scattered across this island that hold a significant wealth of biodiversity that are in criti-cal need of attention and immediate conservation actions. One such system is a group of six small forest fragments within the Lavasoa-Ambatotsirongorongo mountains in the extreme southeast of Madagascar. From east to west, these include Ambatotsirongorongo, Bemanasa, and Grand Lava-soa (Fig. 1). This last fragment is further divided into four fragments that are all in relatively close proximity....
    • Urinary profiles of progestin and androgen metabolites in female polar bears during parturient and non-parturient cycles

      Knott, Katrina K.; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F.; Owen, Megan A.; Kouba, Andrew J. (2017)
      Due to the environmental and anthropogenic impacts that continue to threaten the reproductive success of polar bears, a more detailed understanding of their reproductive cycle is needed. Captive populations of polar bears provide an excellent opportunity to learn more about the reproductive physiology of the species. Progestin (P4) and androgen (T) metabolites in urine, and their ratio (P4:T), were examined during 11 reproductive cycles of captive female polar bears (n = 4) to characterize the steroid hormone profile during pregnancy and determine possible variations related to reproductive failure. The concentration of hormone metabolites in urine were determined through enzyme immunoassay. Reproductive cycles were classified as pregnant (n = 3), anovulatory (n = 4) and ovulatory-non-parturient (n = 4) based on the changes in urinary hormone metabolite values and cub production. In the absence of a lactational suppression of estrus, elevated androgen concentrations suggested resumption of follicular development within 3 weeks of parturition. Breeding behaviours were most often observed when androgen values were at their highest or in decline. Ovulation was identified by a return to basal androgen concentration and elevation of progestins within 1–4 weeks after breeding. As a result, urinary concentrations of progestins were greater than androgens (P4:T ratio ≥ 1.0) during ovulatory cycles whereas the P4:T ratio was <1.0 when females were anovulatory. Progestins and the P4:T ratio of parturient cycles were greatest beginning in June/July (17–20 weeks after breeding) and reached a peak at 24–37 weeks (mid-October/mid-November, 4–9 weeks before birth of cubs). Non-invasive monitoring of hormone metabolites in urine provided a rapid determination of endocrine function for improved husbandry and reproductive management of polar bears in captivity. Further research is warranted to understand the reproductive endocrinology of polar bears and its impact on conservation and management of this species in captivity and the wild.
    • Usage, definition, and measurement of coexistence, tolerance and acceptance in wildlife conservation research in Africa

      Knox, Jillian; Ruppert, Kirstie; Frank, Beatrice; Sponarski, Carly C.; Glikman, Jenny A. (2021)
      The terms ‘coexistence’, ‘tolerance,’ and ‘acceptance’ appear frequently in conservation literature, but lack consistent characterization, making them difficult to apply across intervention frameworks. This review aims to describe the common characterizations of these three terms using Africa-based research as a case study….
    • Use of an outdoor enclosure by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at Beijing Zoo

      Cui, Duoying; Tan, Chia L.; Jinguo, Zhang; Ning, Liu; Xiaolong, Che (2014)
      The use of an outdoor enclosure and behaviors of 5 Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at Beijing Zoo were studied by means of instantaneous scan sampling, focal animal sampling and all- occurrence recording methods in August 2013. Malayan tapirs were more likely to use grassland, bare soil, deep-water pool and concrete surfaces than shallow water, and tapirs avoided stony ground….
    • Use of molecular data in zoo and aquarium collection management: Benefits, challenges, and best practices

      Norman, Anita J.; Putnam, Andrea S.; Ivy, Jamie A. (2019)
      The global zoo and aquarium community widely recognizes that its animal collections and cooperative breeding programs are facing a sustainability crisis. It has become commonly accepted that numerous priority species cannot be maintained unless new management strategies are adopted....
    • Use of scent ecology to improve reintroduction outcomes: applications for Tasmanian devils

      Shier, Debra M.; Reid-Wainscoat, Elizabeth E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Fox, Samantha; Pemberton, David; Belov, Katherine (CSIROClayton South, Australia, 2019)
    • Use of urinary 13,14, dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGFM) concentrations to diagnose pregnancy and predict parturition in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanolecua)

      Roberts, Beth M.; Brown, Janine L.; Kersey, David C.; Snyder, Rebecca J.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Kouba, Andrew J. (2018)
      Pregnancy determination is difficult in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanolecua), representing a challenge for ex situ conservation efforts. Research in other species experiencing pseudopregnancy indicates that urinary/fecal concentrations of 13,14, dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGFM) can accurately determine pregnancy status. Our objective was to determine if urinary PGFM concentrations are associated with pregnancy status in the giant panda....
    • Using a mixed-methods approach to elucidate the conservation implications of the human–primate interface in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, China

      Ellwanger, Amanda L.; Riley, Erin P.; Niu, Kefeng; Tan, Chia L. (Cambridge University PressNew York, 2017)
      To better conserve the rich biodiversity of Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, China, we adopted an interdisciplinary approach based on ethnographic interviews, direct human behavioral observations and geospatial data collection to research into local people’s knowledge of and attitudes toward the nature reserve and its conservation flagship, the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey. This book chapter provides an excellent road map for conservation biologists to undertake similar types of studies....
    • Using animal behavior in conservation management: a series of systematic reviews and maps

      Greggor, Alison L.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Wong, Bob B. M.; Berger-Tal, Oded (2019)
      In the past few decades there has been a growing understanding of the role animal behavior research can play in improving the effectiveness and success of conservation management programs. Animal behavior can help us understand and predict the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on wildlife populations, can be used as a tool in conservation interventions, and can serve as a powerful indicator of conservation problems [1]. Overall, the emergent field of conservation behavior (applying animal behavior research to conservation and management) has already contributed to many successful conservation outcomes—from devising individual-specific diets to manage sex ratios in the critically endangered Kakapo [2], to promoting life skills that enhance survival after reintroduction of species into the wild [3,4,5,6]. Nevertheless, there is tremendous room for improvement. For example, olfactory deterrents can fail because they do not adequately recognize or manipulate context in the meaning of animal signals [7]. Meanwhile, traps designed in the laboratory to attract and control invasive species can prove ineffective under field conditions [8]. In many such cases, we simply do not understand the underlying causes of failures, which prevent us from offering sound and cost-effective guidance on conservation management. These failures and a common disregard for behavior in conservation settings have led to the valid criticism that the field lacks impact. We argue that the relevance of the field hinges on us being able to openly admit, distinguish, and understand where and why applying a behavioral approach succeeds and fails in improving conservation or management outcomes.