• X chromosome evolution in Cetartiodactyla

      Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.; Kulemzina, Anastasia I.; Perelman, Polina L.; Makunin, Alexey I.; Larkin, Denis M.; Farré, Marta; Kukekova, Anna V.; Lynn Johnson, Jennifer; Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; et al. (2017)
      The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we have selected 26 evolutionarily conserved bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the cattle CHORI-240 library evenly distributed along the cattle X chromosome. High-resolution BAC maps of the X chromosome on a representative range of cetartiodactyl species from different branches: pig (Suidae), alpaca (Camelidae), gray whale (Cetacea), hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), Java mouse-deer (Tragulidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Siberian musk deer (Moschidae), and giraffe (Giraffidae) were obtained by fluorescent in situ hybridization. To trace the X chromosome evolution during fast radiation in specious families, we performed mapping in several cervids (moose, Siberian roe deer, fallow deer, and Pere David’s deer) and bovid (muskox, goat, sheep, sable antelope, and cattle) species. We have identified three major conserved synteny blocks and rearrangements in different cetartiodactyl lineages and found that the recently described phenomenon of the evolutionary new centromere emergence has taken place in the X chromosome evolution of Cetartiodactyla at least five times. We propose the structure of the putative ancestral cetartiodactyl X chromosome by reconstructing the order of syntenic segments and centromere position for key groups.
    • Xantusia riversiana (island night lizard). Captive diet

      Baldwin, Brett; Fontaine, Jeremy; Lovich, Kim (2016)
      Xantusia riversiana has seldom been kept in zoological institutions, and very little is known about its diet in captivity. In the wild, X. riversiana has the broadest diet of all Xantusia species (Brattstrom 1952. Copeia 1952:168–172).…
    • Xenogeneic transfer of adult quail (Coturnix coturnix) spermatogonial stem cells to embryonic chicken (Gallus gallus) hosts: a model for avian conservation

      Roe, Mandi; McDonald, Nastassja; Durrant, Barbara S.; Jensen, Thomas (2013)
      ...This is the first study to suggest that it is feasible to rescue adult germ stem cells of deceased birds to prolong the reproductive lifespan of critically endangered species or genetically valuable individuals by transferring them to an embryonic chicken host.
    • Zoo and wildlife libraries: An international survey

      Coates, Linda L.; Tierney, Kaitlyn Rose; (2010)
      The conservation and well-being of exotic animals is core to the mission of zoos, aquariums and many small nonprofit wildlife groups. Increasingly, these organizations are committed to scientific research, both basic and applied. To ascertain the current state of the libraries that support their efforts, librarians at the San Diego Zoo conducted an international survey between June and August, 2008. Only 73 libraries responded to our request for information....