• Insights into medicinal wildlife consumption and bear part use in Rakhine, Myanmar

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Gaffi, Lorenzo; Mussoni, Giulia; Zaw, Thet; Glikman, Jenny A. (2020)
      Myanmar is an area of high diversity with prolific illegal wildlife trade, including trade in bear products for medicine. We focused on Rakhine State, Myanmar, which retains sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) populations despite poaching….
    • Integrating current methods for the preservation of amphibian genetic resources and viable tissues to achieve best practices for species conservation

      Zimkus, Breda M; Hassapakis, Craig L; Houck, Marlys L. (2018)
      Global amphibian declines associated with anthropogenic causes, climate change, and amphibianspecific infectious diseases (e.g., chytridiomycosis) have highlighted the importance of biobanking amphibian genetic material. Genetic resource collections were the first to centralize the long-term storage of samples for use in basic science, including disciplines such as molecular evolution, molecular genetics, phylogenetics, and systematics. Biobanks associated with conservation breeding programs put a special emphasis on the cryopreservation of viable cells. These cell lines have a broader application, including the potential for genetic rescue and use in species propagation for population enhancement, such as captive breeding and reintroduction programs. We provide an overview of the most commonly used methods for the preservation of genetic resources, identify ways to standardize collection processes across biobanks, and provide decision trees to assist researchers in maximizing the potential use of their samples for both scientific research and the practice of species conservation. We hope that the collection and deposition of tissues preserved using methods that enable eventual cell line establishment will become routine practice among researchers, particularly herpetologists working in the field. While many major museums do not yet cryopreserve reproductive cells or cell lines, they contain the infrastructure and staff to maintain these collections if protocols and procedures are adapted. Collaboration between organizations can play an important future role in the conservation of amphibians, especially biobanks associated with research institutions and those pioneering techniques used in breeding programs.
    • Intensity of play behavior as a potential measure of welfare: A novel method for quantifying the integrated intensity of behavior in African elephants

      Vicino, Greg A.; Marcacci, Emily S. (2015)
      This study was developed to test an equation that quantified the intensity and duration of play bouts in a particularly gregarious mammal, African elephants (Loxodonta africana ) housed at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA.… Here we present the methods and technique used to calculate a standardized Integrated Play Index (IPI) that has potential for use in other socially living species that are known to exhibit play behavior
    • Inter-aviary distance and visual access influence conservation breeding outcomes in a territorial, endangered bird

      Flanagan, Alison M.; Rutz, Christian; Farabaugh, Susan M.; Greggor, Alison L.; Masuda, Bryce M.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2020)
      Species extinctions are becoming a global crisis, affecting biodiversity and ecosystem services, with island populations being particularly vulnerable. In response, conservation managers are increasingly turning to ex situ conservation breeding programs to establish assurance populations and provide a source for release and re-establishment of wild populations. The 'Alalā (Hawaiian crow, Corvus hawaiiensis) is a critically endangered and territorial island corvid that became extinct in the wild in 2002, following a severe and prolonged population decline during the late 20th century....
    • Inter-unit contests within a provisioned troop of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China

      Zhao, Q.; Tan, Chia L.; (2010)
      ... In this study, we studied inter‐unit contests in a provisioned troop of Sichuan snub‐nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). We spent 368 hr in contact with 9 one‐male units sharing the same home range, during which we recorded 148 inter‐unit contests at a provisioning site. Inter‐unit contests always started as inter‐individual contests....
    • Intergenerational effects of nutrition on immunity: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Grueber, Catherine E.; Gray Lindsey J.; Morris Katrina M.; Simpson Stephen J.; Senior Alistair M. (2017)
      ...Using the geometric framework for nutrition (a method for analysing diet compositions wherein food nutrient components are expressed as axes in a Cartesian coordinate space) to define dietary manipulations in terms of their energy and macronutrient compositions, we compiled the results of 226 experiments from 38 published papers on the intergenerational effects of diet on immunity, across a range of study species and immunological responses. We observed intergenerational impacts of parental nutrition on a number of offspring immunological processes, including expression of pro‐inflammatory biomarkers as well as decreases in anti‐inflammatory markers in response to certain parental diets....
    • Intestinal helminths in wild Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon

      Conga, David F.; Bowler, Mark; Tantalean, Manuel; Montes, Daniel; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Mayor, Pedro (2014)
      …We examined 36 fecal samples from Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii ) collected from wild animals in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Samples were positive for helminth infection. Nematodes egg: Strongyloididae, Trypanoxyuris sp., Spirurid, and a cestode egg were identified.
    • Into the night: camera traps reveal nocturnal activity in a presumptive diurnal primate, (Rhinopithecus brelichi)

      Tan, Chia L.; Yang, Yeqin; Niu, Kefeng (2013)
      Most living primates exhibit a daytime or nighttime activity pattern. Strict diurnality is thought to be the rule among anthropoids except for owl monkeys. Here we report the diel activity pattern of an Asian colobine, the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus brelichi, based on a methodology that relied on using 24-h continuously operating camera traps. We conducted the study in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve in Guizhou, China from March 22 to May 19 and from June 17 to October 14, 2011. After standardizing all time elements to a meridian-based time according to the geographic coordinates of the study site, we showed unequivocally that the monkeys, though predominantly diurnal, exhibited activity beyond daylight hours throughout the study. Specifically, their activity at night and during twilight periods suggests a complex interplay of behavioral adaptations, among others, to living in a temperate environment where day length and food resources fluctuate substantially across seasons. We contend that, under prevailing ecological conditions, so-called strictly diurnal primates may adjust their activity schedule opportunistically in order to increase energy intake. We also discuss the advantages of using camera traps in primate studies, and how the standardized use of meridian-based time by researchers would benefit comparisons of diel activity patterns among primates.
    • Investigating embryo deaths and hatching failure

      Rideout, Bruce (2012)
      Artificial incubation and hand-rearing allow aviculturists to greatly increase the reproductive potential of breeding populations. When one clutch is pulled for artificial incubation, a second clutch will typically be laid, which can then be parent-reared or also pulled for artificial incubation, thereby doubling or tripling reproductive output....
    • Investigation of factors predicting disease among zoo birds exposed to avian mycobacteriosis

      Witte, Carmel L.; Hungerford, L.L.; Papendick, Rebecca; Stalis, Ilse H.; Rideout, Bruce; (2010)
      Objective—To characterize infection patterns and identify factors associated with avian mycobacteriosis among zoo birds that were housed with infected enclosure mates. Design—Matched case-control study. Animals—79 birds with avian mycobacteriosis (cases) and 316 nondiseased birds (controls) of similar age and taxonomic group that were present in the bird collection of the Zoological Society of San Diego from 1991 through 2005….
    • IOD in rhinos--epidemiology group report: report from the Epidemiology Working Group of the International Workshop on Iron Overload Disorder in Browsing Rhinoceros

      Dennis, Pam; Ellis, Susie; Mellen, Jill; Lee, Pauline; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Petric, Ann; Ryder, Oliver A. (2012)
      The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the International Workshop on Iron Storage Disease (renamed iron overload disorder, IOD), identified several areas in which information is lacking regarding IOD in browser rhinoceros. One of the first steps necessary in understanding iron overload disorder (IOD) is to define the parameters by which to identify IOD....
    • IOD in rhinos—nutrition group report: report from the nutrition working group of the international workshop on iron overload disorder in browsing rhinoceros (February 2011)

      Clauss, Marcus; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Goff, Jesse; Klasing, Kirk; Koutsos, Liz; Lavin, Shana; Livingston, Shannon; Nielson, Brian; Schlegel, Michael; Sullivan, Kathleen (2012)
      ..This report provides feeding recommendations for browser rhinos maintained under the care of humans as well as directions for future research efforts....
    • Isolation of a Bohle-like iridovirus from boreal toads housed within a cosmopolitan aquarium collection

      Cheng, Kwang; Jones, Megan E. B.; Jancovich, James K.; Burchell, Jennifer; Schrenzel, Mark D.; Reavill, Drury R.; Imai, Denise M.; Urban, Abby; Kirkendall, Maryanne; Woods, Leslie W.; et al. (2014)
      A captive ‘survival assurance’ population of 56 endangered boreal toads Anaxyrus boreas boreas, housed within a cosmopolitan collection of amphibians originating from Southeast Asia and other locations, experienced high mortality (91%) in April to July 2010. Histological examination demonstrated lesions consistent with ranaviral disease, including multicentric necrosis of skin, kidney, liver, spleen, and hematopoietic tissue, vasculitis, and myriad basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies…. This finding has implications for the management of amphibians destined for use in reintroduction programs, as their release may inadvertently lead to viral dissemination.
    • IUCN Red List Assessment: Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis ssp. reticulata)

      Muneza, A.; Doherty, J. B.; Ali, A. Hussein; Fennessy, J.; Marais, A.; O'Connor, David; Wube, T. (2018)
      Reticulated Giraffe is listed as Endangered under criterion A because of an estimated continuing of ~56% over the last 30 years (3 generations). The decline is most likely attributed to habitat loss, deterioration in habitat quality and illegal killing/poaching....
    • Jaguar persecution without “cowflict”: Insights from protected territories in the Bolivian Amazon

      Knox, Jillian; Negrões, Nuno; Marchini, Silvio; Barboza, Kathrin; Guanacoma, Gladys; Balhau, Patricia; Tobler, Mathias W.; Glikman, Jenny A. (2019)
      Persecution by humans is one of the most pressing threats to jaguars (Panthera onca) throughout the Americas, yet few studies have examined the killing of jaguars outside cattle-ranching communities. Although over one-third of the jaguar’s range is formally protected, relatively little is known about human-jaguar relationships within protected areas and indigenous territories. Protected land within the Bolivian Amazon, considered a stronghold for the jaguar, contains communities who differ economically, legally, and socially from previously-studied human populations living with jaguars. Using in-person structured interviews, we investigated attitudes and norms related to jaguars and jaguar killing, self-reported past killing of jaguars, and demographic variables in two protected areas and an indigenous territory: Integrated Management Area of Santa Rosa del Abuná (Santa Rosa, n=224), Indigenous Territory Tacana II (n=137), and Manuripi National Amazon Wildlife Reserve (MNAWR, n=169). Overall, people disliked (48.9%) or felt neutral (26.8%) toward jaguars. A relatively large number of people reported either being attacked or knowing someone who had been attacked by a jaguar: 15.45% in Santa Rosa, 14.20% in MNAWR, and 30.88% in Tacana II. Many respondents stated to have killed a jaguar, although the proportion differed among study areas: 20.39% of Santa Rosa, 55.47% of Tacana II, and 32.72% of MNAWR. People perceived jaguar persecution as relatively common: 44.9% of Santa Rosa, 90.8% of Tacana II, and 65.8% of MNAWR said their neighbors kill jaguars (i.e. descriptive norm). Also, 75.4% of Santa Rosa, 89.1% of Tacana II, and 69.1% of MNAWR said that some of their family members and neighbors thought jaguar killing was good (i.e. subjective norm). Descriptive and subjective norms positively influenced both attitudes toward killing and past killing of jaguars. This perception of jaguar killing being common and socially-accepted, combined with high rates of past killing and a growing illegal trade of jaguar parts, may create an atmosphere conducive to widespread jaguar persecution in the Bolivian Amazon. We recommend management strategies that focus on preventing jaguar depredation of small domestic animals, lessening the perception of carnivore encounters as dangerous to decrease safety-related fears, and making large carnivore killing socially unacceptable (e.g. through social marketing).
    • Jamaican Iguana (Cyclura collei) AZA Animal Program Population Viability Analysis Report.

      Mechak, L.; Grant, Tandora D.; Krebs, J. (Associaton of Zoos and Aquariums, 2015)
    • Jamaican Iguana (Cyclura collei) AZA Regional Studbook. AZA Yellow SSP Program.

      Grant, Tandora D. (Associaton of Zoos and Aquariums, 2017)
    • Jamaican Iguana: Species Recovery Plan, 2006-2013

      Grant, Tandora D.; Pagni, L; Wilson, B (IUCNGland, Switzerland, 2013)
      Thought to be extinct by the mid 1900s, the Jamaican Iguana was rediscovered in 1970, and again in 1990. The 1970 rediscovery generated surprisingly little interest, either within Jamaica or among international conservation organizations. But when pig hunter Edwin Duffus brought a live specimen to the Hope Zoo in 1990, the local Jamaican Iguana Research and Conservation Group (JIRCG) was rapidly formed, and international support quickly materialized. The renamed Jamaican Iguana Recovery Group (JIRG) is a consortium of local Jamaican organizations and international conservation groups that held a workshop in July 2006 to formulate the present Species Recovery Plan (SRP)...
    • Joint species distribution models with species correlations and imperfect detection

      Tobler, Mathias W.; Kéry, Marc; Hui, Francis K. C.; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Knaus, Peter; Sattler, Thomas (2019)
      Spatiotemporal patterns in biological communities are typically driven by environmental factors and species interactions. Spatial data from communities are naturally described by stacking models for all species in the community....
    • Justifying and deciding whether to conduct a reintroduction or other conservation translocation

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Reintroduction is not the first step toward the conservation of a species, but rather follows a careful process of gathering information about the species, threats, alternative actions, and future needs. There are several considerations for justifying a reintroduction.