• Splitting samples for safety duplication storage and testing

      Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; McCue, Kim; Remucal, David; Ritchie, James; Meyer, Evan; Wesley, Robert; Way, Michael; Chapman, Suzzanne; Fitch, Ryan; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      The old adage “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” applies to seed banking. Divide each accession and store each half at a different safe seed banking facility. Create curation packages to place inside storage packages. Seeds in curation packages can be used for testing initial and long-term viability. Seeds in storage packages are intended to be stored long-term.
    • Spring fasting behavior in a marine apex predator provides an index of ecosystem productivity

      Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Douglas, David C.; Muhlenbruch, Vanessa; Atwood, Todd C.; Regehr, Eric V.; Richardson, Evan S.; Pilfold, Nicholas W.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Durner, George M.; et al. (2018)
      The effects of declining Arctic sea ice on local ecosystem productivity are not well understood but have been shown to vary inter-specifically, spatially, and temporally. Because marine mammals occupy upper trophic levels in Arctic food webs, they may be useful indicators for understanding variation in ecosystem productivity. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are apex predators that primarily consume benthic and pelagic-feeding ice-associated seals. As such, their productivity integrates sea ice conditions and the ecosystem supporting them. Declining sea ice availability has been linked to negative population effects for polar bears but does not fully explain observed population changes. We examined relationships between spring foraging success of polar bears and sea ice conditions, prey productivity, and general patterns of ecosystem productivity in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (CSs). Fasting status (?7 days) was estimated using serum urea and creatinine levels of 1,448 samples collected from 1,177 adult and subadult bears across three subpopulations. Fasting increased in the Beaufort Sea between 1983–1999 and 2000–2016 and was related to an index of ringed seal body condition. This change was concurrent with declines in body condition of polar bears and observed changes in the diet, condition and/or reproduction of four other vertebrate consumers within the food chain. In contrast, fasting declined in CS polar bears between periods and was less common than in the two Beaufort Sea subpopulations consistent with studies demonstrating higher primary productivity and maintenance or improved body condition in polar bears, ringed seals, and bearded seals despite recent sea ice loss in this region. Consistency between regional and temporal variation in spring polar bear fasting and food web productivity suggests that polar bears may be a useful indicator species. Furthermore, our results suggest that spatial and temporal ecological variation is important in affecting upper trophic-level productivity in these marine ecosystems.
    • Stem cell therapy in zoo medicine

      Kinney, Matthew E.; Harman, Robert (ElsevierSt. Louis, MO, 2019)
    • Stereotypic behavior in wild marine carnivores?

      Miller, Lance J.; Kuczaj, S.; Herzing, D. (2011)
      ...The following commentary details the observations of wild lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) engaging in a stereotyped swimming pattern behind a research vessel north of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas. We consider a possible explanation for the sharks' behavior and hope to stimulate conversation as well as increase examination of animal management routines in zoological facilities.
    • Stereotypic behaviour predicts reproductive performance and litter sex ratio in giant pandas

      Martin, Meghan S.; Owen, Megan A.; Wintle, Nathan J. P.; Zhang, Guiquan; Zhang, Hemin; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2020)
      Breeding and welfare problems confront many conservation breeding programs. Stereotypies—repetitive, unvarying, functionless behaviours —are common abnormal behaviours that often arise in suboptimal conditions. While the role of stereotypies in welfare assessment is well studied, few investigations address the relationship between stereotypic behaviour and reproduction. We examined the correlation between stereotypic behaviour and reproductive performance in 101 giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). High stereotyping males copulated more and produced more cubs, suggesting that highly sexually motivated males were prone to stereotypy but also had high reproductive competence. Female stereotypies were negatively associated with all reproductive measures closely tied to behavioural competence: high stereotyping females were less likely to copulate, less likely to mother-rear cubs, and—probably a result of poor maternal care—had lower cub survival. However, females that exhibited stereotypies were more likely to produce a cub, suggesting stereotypies are tied to behavioural but not physiological competence. High stereotyping female pandas also displayed strong and consistent bias toward production of female offspring while paternal relationship to sex allocation was the reverse. These results are consistent with stress-mediated sex allocation theory. Our findings raise concern about differential reproductive success among high and low stereotyping pandas, and possible genetic adaptation to captivity.
    • Strongylid infection varies with age, sex, movement and social factors in wild African elephants

      Parker, Jenna M.; Goldenberg, Shifra Z.; Letitiya, David; Wittemyer, George (2019)
      Comparing parasitic infection among individuals of wildlife populations can provide insight into factors that influence wildlife disease ecology. Strongylids are parasitic worms that infect the intestinal tract of vertebrates, and infection with strongylids can be approximated by counting strongylid eggs in dung samples....
    • Strongylid infection varies with age, sex, movement and social factors in wild African elephants

      Parker, Jenna M.; Goldenberg, Shifra Z.; Letitiya, David; Wittemyer, George (2020)
      Comparing parasitic infection among individuals of wildlife populations can provide insight into factors that influence wildlife disease ecology. Strongylids are parasitic worms that infect the intestinal tract of vertebrates, and infection with strongylids can be approximated by counting strongylid eggs in dung samples....
    • Successful treatment of chronic periapical osteomyelitis in a parma wallaby (Macropus parma) using comprehensive endodontic therapy with apicoectomy

      Kilgallon, Conor P.; Bicknese, Elizabeth; Fagan, David A.; (2010)
      Although necrobacillosis remains a common condition of captive macropods, there have been limited reports of successful treatment modalities by which it can be treated.…This report describes a case of periapical osteomyelitis involving a mandibular incisor in a Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) that was successfully treated using these techniques in conjunction with low-level laser therapy at 810 nm, which was used for decontamination of the pulp cavity, anti-inflammatory, and biostimulatory effects….
    • Suidae and Tayassuida (wild pigs, peccaries)

      Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Miller, R.E.; Fowler, M.E.; Miller, R.E.; Fowler, M.E. (ElsevierSt. Louis, MO, 2014)
      The families Suidae (swine) and Tayassuidae (peccaries) are nonruminating ungulates belonging to the Suina clade or suborder within the order Artiodactyla…. Ancestors of extant peccaries are thought to have dispersed into the New World from eastern Asia. Currently, three species of peccary range from Southwestern United States to South America.
    • Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): A review of conservation status

      Wibisono, Hariyo T.; Pusparini, Wulan; (2010)
      The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88 000 km2. However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km2 and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management.
    • Sumatran tiger survival threatened by deforestation despite increasing densities in parks

      Luskin, Matthew Scott; Albert, Wido Rizki; Tobler, Mathias W. (2017)
      The continuing development of improved capture–recapture (CR) modeling techniques used to study apex predators has also limited robust temporal and cross-site analyses due to different methods employed. We develop an approach to standardize older non-spatial CR and newer spatial CR density estimates and examine trends for critically endangered Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) using a meta-regression of 17 existing densities and new estimates from our own fieldwork. We find that tiger densities were 47% higher in primary versus degraded forests and, unexpectedly, increased 4.9% per yr from 1996 to 2014, likely indicating a recovery from earlier poaching. However, while tiger numbers may have temporarily risen, the total potential island-wide population declined by 16.6% from 2000 to 2012 due to forest loss and degradation and subpopulations are significantly more fragmented. Thus, despite increasing densities in smaller parks, we conclude that there are only two robust populations left with >30 breeding females, indicating Sumatran tigers still face a high risk of extinction unless deforestation can be controlled.
    • Survey for the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Southwestern North Carolina salamander populations

      Keitzer, S. Conor; Goforth, Reuben; Pessier, Allan P.; Johnson, April J. (2011)
      Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a fungal pathogen responsible for a potentially fatal disease of amphibians. We conducted a survey for B. dendrobatidis in the Appalachian Mountains of southwestern North Carolina, USA, from 10 June to 23 July 23 2009....
    • Survey of clinical ophthalmic disease in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) among North American zoological institutions.

      Miller, Sarah; Whelan, Nick; Hope, Katharine; Nogueira Marmolejo, Miryam G.; Knightly, Felicia; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Rivera, Sam (2020)
      This study surveyed six North American zoologic institutions to collect retrospective information on the incidence of ocular disease in the giant panda. Reported information included sex and age at presentation, as well as diagnosis, treatment, duration, and clinical outcome for each episode of ocular disease....
    • Survey of geriatric elephant medical care, nutrition, husbandry, and welfare

      Greene, Whitney; Brenner, Deena J. (2020)
      Improvements in husbandry, veterinary care, and nutrition have led to increased longevity of animals in human care, including elephants. The goal of this study was to collect and synthesize information pertaining to geriatric elephant medicine, management, husbandry, and nutrition…..
    • Survey of Plasmodium spp. in free-ranging neotropical primates from the Brazilian Amazon region impacted by anthropogenic actions

      Bueno, Marina G.; Rohe, Fabio; Kirchgatter, Karin; Di Santi, Silvia M. F.; Guimarães, Lilian O.; Witte, Carmel L.; Costa-Nascimento, Maria J.; Toniolo, Christina R. C.; Catão-Dias, José Luiz (2013)
      This study investigated Plasmodium spp. infection in free-ranging neotropical primates from Brazilian Amazon regions under the impact of major anthropogenic actions. Blood samples from 19 new world primates were collected and analyzed with microscopic and molecular procedures. The prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 21.0% (4/19) and PCR positive samples were identified as P. brasilianum. Considering the social-economic changes that the Amazon is facing, the prevalence of P. brasilianum infection highlights the necessity to closely monitor the movement of both human and non-human primate populations, in order to mitigate pathogen exposure and the introduction of new agents into previously naïve areas.
    • Systematic evidence synthesis as part of a larger process: a response to comments on Berger-Tal et al

      Berger-Tal, Oded; Greggor, Alison L.; Macura, Biljana; Adams, Carrie Ann; Blumenthal, Arden; Bouskila, Amos; Candolin, Ulrika; Doran, Carolina; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Gotanda, Kiyoko M.; et al. (2018)
      We are encouraged that the prospect of generating systematic reviews and maps (Berger-Tal et al. 2019) has stirred enthusiasm among our peers. The resulting discussion brings up a number of valid points that share a vision for a field with greater internal rigor and external impact....
    • Systematic reviews and maps as tools for applying behavioral ecology to management and policy

      Berger-Tal, Oded; Greggor, Alison L.; Macura, Biljana; Adams, Carrie Ann; Blumenthal, Arden; Bouskila, Amos; Candolin, Ulrika; Doran, Carolina; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Gotanda, Kiyoko M.; et al. (2019)
      We describe the utility of conducting formal systematic reviews and maps to synthesize behavioral evidence in a way that enhances its utility to managers, polic
    • Systemic amyloid A amyloidosis in island foxes (Urocyon littoralis): Severity and risk factors

      Gaffney, Patricia M.; Witte, Carmel L.; Clifford, D. L.; Imai, D. M.; O’Brien, T. D.; Trejo, M.; Liberta, F.; Annamalai, K.; Fändrich, M.; Masliah, E.; et al. (2016)
      ...Here we define the severity of glomerular and medullary renal amyloid and identify risk factors for AA amyloidosis in 321 island foxes necropsied from 1987 through 2010. In affected kidneys, amyloid more commonly accumulated in the medullary interstitium than in the glomeruli (98% [n = 78 of 80] vs 56% [n = 45], respectively; P < .0001), and medullary deposition was more commonly severe (19% [n = 20 of 105]) as compared with glomeruli (7% [n = 7]; P = .01)....
    • Systemic amyloidosis in an African tiger snake (Telescopus semiannulatus)

      Burns, Rachel E.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Nilsson, K. P. R.; Armién, A. G.; Pessier, Allan P. (2017)
      Summary An adult male African tiger snake (Telescopus semiannulatus) was diagnosed with disseminated mycobacteriosis and a hepatic biliary cystadenocarcinoma. Histologically, the spleen was largely replaced by extracellular deposits of eosinophilic, fibrillar to hyaline material....
    • Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar

      Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse H.; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan (2015)
      …In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena…. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers….