• Alaotra reed lemur (Hapalemur alaotrensis). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Ralainasolo, F.B; Raveloarimalala, M.L; Randrianasolo, H.; Reuter, K.E; Heriniaina, R; Clarke, T; Ravaloharimanitra, M.; Volampeno, S.; Donati, G; Razafindramanana, J.; et al. (2020)
      Listed as Critically Endangered as the species has been observed to have undergone a population reduction of greater than or equal to 80% over a period of 27 years (three generations), due primarily to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible.
    • Betsileo woolly lemur (Avahi betsileo). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence of this species covers less than 1,470 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
    • Black lemur (Eulemur macaco). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Andriantsimanarilafy, R.R; Borgerson, C.; Clarke, T; Colquhoun, I.C; Cotton, A; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Heriniaina, R; Irwin, M; Johnson, S; et al. (2020)
      The range of the species is severely fragmented and remaining areas of forest are under anthropogenic pressure (Mittermeier et al. 2010, Tinsman et al. 2019). Given this, and that the overall population size is suspected to be in decline at a rate of >50% over three generations, the current assessment lists Eulemur macaco as Endangered.
    • Cathemeral

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Donati, Giuseppe; Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (Springer NatureNew York, 2019)
      Within this encyclopedia article, we provide an overview of the term “Cathemeral”. This is applied to the pattern of an organism’s activity that occurs during both the light and dark portions of the 24-h cycle....
    • Crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reuter, K.E; Eppley, Timothy M.; Hending, D; Pacifici, M; Semel, B.; Zaonarivelo, J. (2020)
      A population reduction of greater than or equal to 50% is suspected to be met in the future over a time period of 25 years (three generations based on an 8.4-year generation time, Pacifici et al. 2013). This is based on a continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
    • Crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Razafindramanana, J.; Salmona, J.; King, T.; Roullet, D.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Sgarlata, G.M.; Schwitzer, C. (2020)
      Listed as Critically Endangered as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of greater than or equal to 80% over a period of 30 years (three generations), due primarily to observed continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat from burning of forests to provide pasture for livestock and logging for charcoal production, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. Given the likely continuing population decline, the species has been uplisted to Critically Endangered.
    • Do functional traits offset the effects of fragmentation? The case of large-bodied diurnal lemur species

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Santini, Luca; Tinsman, Jen C.; Donati, Giuseppe (2020)
      Primates worldwide are faced with increasing threats making them more vulnerable to extinction. Anthropogenic disturbances, such as habitat degradation and fragmentation, are among the main concerns, and in Madagascar, these issues have become widespread....
    • Does forest management and researchers’ presence reduce hunting and forest exploitation by local communities in Tsitongambarika, south-east Madagascar?

      Campera, Marco; Phelps, Megan; Besnard, Fiona; Balestri, Michela; Eppley, Timothy M.; Nijman, Vincent; Donati, Giuseppe (2019)
      Hunting of wildlife is one of the major threats to biodiversity. For effective conservation programmes in countries where hunting and shifting agriculture are the main sources of subsistence, forest management should aim to reduce hunting pressure and forest exploitation....
    • Ganzhorna's mouse lemur (Microcebus ganzhorni). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Ganzhorn, J.; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Hyde Roberts, S; Poelstra, J.W; Rakotondranary, S.J.; Ramanamanjato, J.-B.; Randriantafika, F.M.; Refaly, E.; Tsagnangara, C.; et al. (2020)
      Up to 2016, the south-eastern subpopulation of Grey Mouse Lemurs has been considered to represent a disjunct population of Microcebus murinus (Mittermeier et al. 2010). Based on samples from the littoral forest of Mandena a new form has been separated from M. murinus and been named as M. ganzhorni based on genetic grounds (Hotaling et al. 2016). Morphologically M. ganzhorni is indistinguishable from M. murinus and difficult to distinguish from M. griseorufus (M. griseorufus has a white belly with white underfur while M. murinus and M. ganzhorni have greyish underfur) and thus, taxonomic assignments in the field remain uncertain without genetic analyses. Given these uncertainty, the Extent of Occurrence was unclear at the time the species was described. New genetic analyses showed that M. ganzhorni does not occur in Andohahela National Park (Tiley, Poelstra, Yoder et al., unpubl. data) and does not move up the coastal mountains as this is the range of M. tanosi and M. manitatra (Rasoloarison et al. 2013, Donati et al. 2019). M. ganzhorni thus seems to be restricted to littoral forests east and possibly west of Fort Dauphin. In any case, the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be above 10 km� but below 500 km�. These forests are severely fragmented with the largest fragments measuring less than 2 km�. The size of most forest fragments is declining and forests are being degraded. The species tolerates forest degradation and occurs in a wide range of different habitats, including gardens....
    • Hapalemur meridionalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Donati, G; Balestri, M; Campera, M; Eppley, Timothy M. (2020)
      There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to30% in this species over a three generation period. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, and exploitation through hunting. Between 1999-2005 habitat loss in the Tsitongambarika Protected Area has been 1.74% per year (Andriamasimanana 2008). A population reduction of greater than or equal to 30% is also suspected to be met in the next 27 years (over a three generation time period) due to the same causes. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. Of note, it has been estimated that there will be a 21% reduction in the species' range from 2000 to 2080 due to climate change alone (Brown and Yoder 2015). Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
    • Lemurs in mangroves and other flooded habitats

      Donati, Giuseppe; Eppley, Timothy M.; Ralison, J.; Youssouf, J.; Ganzhorn, Jörg U.; Barnett, A. A.; Matsuda, I.; Nowak (Cambridge University PressCambridge, UK, 2019)
      Recent estimates indicate that mangroves in Madagascar occupy an area of approximately 2800 km2, representing about 2% of global mangroves. Being marginal habitats with extreme temperatures, solar radiation levels, winds, salinity and flooding, mangrove forests are relatively poor in species diversity....
    • Lorenz Von Liburnau's woolly lemur (Avahi occidentalis). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Reuter, K.E; Steffens, T.S. (2020)
      The species is distributed in two disjunct ranges which, calculated separately, sum up to 3,057 km2; the minimum convex polygon of the total range measures 8,619 km2. This extent of occurrence (EOO) is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat with no overall improvement. It has been estimated that there will be a 78% reduction in the species' range from 2000 to 2080 due to climate change (Brown and Yoder 2015). Based on the EOO, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
    • Low levels of fruit nitrogen as drivers for the evolution of Madagascar’s primate communities

      Donati, Giuseppe; Santini, Luca; Eppley, Timothy M.; Arrigo-Nelson, Summer J.; Balestri, Michela; Boinski, Sue; Bollen, An; Bridgeman, LeAndra L.; Campera, Marco; Carrai, Valentina; et al. (2017)
      The uneven representation of frugivorous mammals and birds across tropical regions – high in the New World, low in Madagascar and intermediate in Africa and Asia – represents a long-standing enigma in ecology. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences but the ultimate drivers remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that fruits in Madagascar contain insufficient nitrogen to meet primate metabolic requirements, thus constraining the evolution of frugivory. We performed a global analysis of nitrogen in fruits consumed by primates, as collated from 79 studies. Our results showed that average frugivory among lemur communities was lower compared to New World and Asian-African primate communities. Fruits in Madagascar contain lower average nitrogen than those in the New World and Old World. Nitrogen content in the overall diets of primate species did not differ significantly between major taxonomic radiations. There is no relationship between fruit protein and the degree of frugivory among primates either globally or within regions, with the exception of Madagascar. This suggests that low protein availability in fruits influences current lemur communities to select for protein from other sources, whereas in the New World and Old World other factors are more significant in shaping primate communities.
    • Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Razafindramanana, J.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Rakotondrabe, R.; Roullet, D.; Irwin, M; King, T. (2020)
      There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to 80% in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 8 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area (through deforestation), extent and quality of habitat (selective logging), and exploitation through unsustainable levels of hunting. Furthermore, Eulemur mongoz has undergone hybridization with E. rufus in Western Betsiboka. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.
    • Moore's woolly lemur (Avahi mooreorum). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Borgerson, C.; Sawyer, R.M.; Fenosoa, Z.S.E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species is 2,544 km2 . This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also suspected to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered
    • Peyrieras' woolly lemur (Avahi peyrierasi). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E. (2020)
      A population reduction of greater than or equal to 30% is predicted to occur over a three-generation time period (30 years) in the future, based on continuing and projected decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to ongoing and projected exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species is 6,991 km2 and extremely fragmented. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
    • Ramantsoavanaa's southern woolly lemur (Avahi ramanantsoavani). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Andriamisedra, T.R; Ranaivoarisoa, F.N.; Peterson, C.R.; Ratsimbazafy, J.; Louis, E.E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence of this species covers approximately 14,376 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also thought to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
    • Red brown lemur (Eulemur rufus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Razafindramanana, J.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Rakotondrabe, R.; Rakotoarisoa, A.A.; Ravaloharimanitra, M.; King, T. (2020)
      There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to 30% in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 8 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, and exploitation through unsustainable levels of hunting. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
    • Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Borgerson, C.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Johnson, S; Louis, E.E.; Razafindramanana, J. (2020)
      A population reduction ofgreater than or equal to 80% is suspected to be met over three generations (24 years, assuming a generation length of 8 years). This is based on a continuing decline of the population, due to unsustainable hunting pressure and a reduction in the extent and quality of habitat from subsistence and cash-crop agriculture, illegal logging for precious timber, and frequent cyclones. Based on suspected and inferred decline, measured direct and indirect threats, and its narrow niche dimensions, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.