• Ctenosaura flavidorsalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Malone, C.L.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Yellow-backed Spiny-tailed Iguana is known from a somewhat large geographic area, however, very little is known about their fine-scale distribution and population size. They are very rare in some localities but believed to be in greater abundance in intact forests. The region’s tropical and subtropical dry forest habitat has been extensively degraded for agriculture, cattle ranching, and urbanization. It is suspected the iguana population has declined in correlation with this habitat loss, however, the exact relationship is unknown and it is likely that most of the reduction occurred more than three generations ago, though habitat destruction is ongoing. These iguanas do not occur in any protected area, have limited legal protection in parts of its range, and suffers from lack of enforcement of existing regulations in others. Iguanas can exist in human-modified areas to some extent, but they are threatened by feral and free-roaming cats and dogs, which is likely to augment natural mortality. The estimated extent of occurrence is 15,952 km2 , meeting the threshold for Vulnerable and it is inferred there must be decline, however, there are not enough data to quantify population size, fragmentation, or the number of locations. The species is therefore assessed as Near Threatened as it almost qualifies for listing as Vulnerable.
    • Ctenosaura quinquecarinata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Ubeda, M.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Malone, C.L.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Five-keeled Spiny-tailed Iguana is known from three core areas that are isolated and distant from each other, along the Pacific versant of Nicaragua and northwestern Costa Rica. The estimated extent of occurrence surrounding all known localities is 27,316 km2 , but fine-scale distribution, or population size and structure, within these three areas is not known. These iguanas are very rare in some localities but believed to be in greater abundance in intact forests. The iguanas are found in several protected areas. The region’s tropical and subtropical forest habitat has been extensively degraded for agriculture, cattle ranching, and urbanization. It is suspected there has been a decline in the iguana population correlated with this habitat loss. Although habitat degradation is ongoing, the majority of this loss occurred more than three generations ago. They are extensively hunted for human use and intentionally persecuted in the misbelief they are poisonous. They are removed from the wild for the pet trade, although this trade is also supplied from captive sources. They occur in mildly human-impacted areas, such as suburban areas and crop/ranchlands; however, here they are threatened by fires set intentionally to regenerate the fields. In these areas, iguanas are also more vulnerable to predation by free-ranging, and feral cats and dogs. Survival may be limited as a result of this predation pressure. While it is believed the Fivekeeled Spiny-tailed Iguana faces serious threats, and are not likely to be Least Concern, they are classified as Data Deficient because necessary data are lacking at this time to qualify the species within threatened thresholds.