• Cleaning, processing, drying, and storing orthodox seeds

      Walters, Christina; Maschinski, Joyce; Havens, Kay; Vitt, Pati; Heineman, Katherine D.; Horn, Christa M.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      The old adage “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” applies to seed banking. Divide each accession and store each half at a different safe seed banking facility. Create curation packages to place inside storage packages. Seeds in curation packages can be used for testing initial and long-term viability. Seeds in storage packages are intended to be stored long-term.
    • Collecting and maintaining exceptional species in tissue culture and cryopreservation

      Pence, Valerie; Westwood, Murphy; Maschinski, Joyce; Powell, Christy; Sugii, Nellie; Fish, Diana; McGuinness, Julianne; Raven, Pat; Duval, Julian; Herrera-Mishler, Tomas; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Tissue culture and cryopreservation are alternative storage methods for exceptional species that produce few seeds or seed that are intolerant to drying or freezing. Adequately storing exceptional species requires specialized expertise, infrastructure, and greater resources than conventional seed storage....
    • Collecting seeds from wild rare plant populations

      Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; Guerrant, Ed; Murray, Sheila; Kunz, Michael; Schneider, Heather; Affolter, Jim; Gurnoe, Tony; Fraga, Naomi; Havens, Kay; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Species characteristics, legal parameters, and the purpose of the collection influence decisions about timing, locations, and numbers of seeds (or other tissues) that will need to be collected. Ethics of doing no harm to the wild rare plant population guide actions in the field....
    • Conventional seed banking to support species survival in the wild: Introduction

      Walters, Christina; Maschinski, Joyce; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      One in five plant species are at risk of extinction worldwide. Growing concerns for the loss of plant genetic diversity and species’ extinctions, as well as advancing knowhow to make successful conservation collections, motivates CPC Network scientists to collect seeds from wild populations and bank them. The great diversity of plants throughout the world helps define our sense of place and our cultural heritage....
    • Curating small samples: Increasing the number of seeds for storage and restoration

      Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; Haskins, Kris; Birker, Cheryl; Randall, Johnny; Randall, Leslie; Watkins, Kirstie; Clarke, Margaret; Davitt, Joe; Havens, Kay; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Some species produce so few seeds in the wild that collections of 100 seeds or less are expected. These require additional care. For best conservation value, increase seeds before storage by taking steps to grow to maturity, collect next generation seeds, and store....
    • Distributing samples and information

      Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; Heineman, Katherine D.; Blaik, Rowan; Frances, Anne; Horn, Christa M.; Tiller, Anita; Allenstein, Pam; Anderson, Stacy; Crews, Spencer; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Conservation collections ideally serve the conservation of the species in the wild. Distributions made for this purpose are encouraged. Permits, the collector’s institution collection policy, and the storage agreement with banking facilities will govern the distribution details for seeds, tissues, or whole plants in the future. Distribute in a manner that maintains collection health....
    • Genetic guidelines for acquiring a conservation collection

      Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; Guerrant, Ed; Murray, Sheila; Havens, Kayri; Font, Jeremie; Kramer, Andrea; Vitt, Pati; Neale, Jennifer Ramp; Guerrant Jr., Edward O.; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Planning the quantities to collect from one population and across the range of species will improve the chance of maximizing the genetic diversity of the conservation collection. Maintain maternal lines separately to help approximate potential genetic diversity and allow flexibility for use in future conservation translocations. Collect no more than 10% of a population’s seed crop in a single year and no more than 5 years out of 10.
    • Improving success of rare plant seed reintroductions: a case study of Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana, a rare legume with dormant seeds

      Maschinski, Joyce; Possley, Jennifer; Walters, Christina; Hill, Lisa; Krueger, Lisa; Hazelton, Dallas (2018)
      Recent reviews of rare plant reintroduction success indicate that far fewer studies have been conducted with seeds than whole plants, and of these, less than 10% have established or had long-term population persistence reported. Because seed reintroductions are relatively less expensive than plant reintroductions, determining ways to increase efficacy of using seeds to establish rare populations has conservation benefits....
    • Splitting samples for safety duplication storage and testing

      Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; McCue, Kim; Remucal, David; Ritchie, James; Meyer, Evan; Wesley, Robert; Way, Michael; Chapman, Suzzanne; Fitch, Ryan; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      The old adage “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” applies to seed banking. Divide each accession and store each half at a different safe seed banking facility. Create curation packages to place inside storage packages. Seeds in curation packages can be used for testing initial and long-term viability. Seeds in storage packages are intended to be stored long-term.