• Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds

      Jarvis, Erich D.; Mirarab, Siavash; Aberer, Andre J.; Li, Bo; Houde, Peter; Li, Cai; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Nabholz, Benoit; Howard, Jason T.; et al. (2014)
      To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships.....
    • Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

      Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; et al. (2014)
      Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades....
    • Functional habitat heterogeneity and large herbivore seasonal habitat selection in Northern Botswana

      Fynn, Richard W.S.; Chase, Michael J.; Röder, Achim (2014)
      This study aimed to determine the functional seasonal attributes for herbivores of the major habitats and landscapes of the Savuti-Mababe-Linyanti ecosystem (SMLE) of northern Botswana and how various herbivore species responded to this heterogeneity. Floodplain grasslands and dambo grasslands provided the only significant green forage and biomass during the late dry season, whereas short grasslands of the Mababe Depression provided the highest forage quality of all habitats during the wet season....
    • Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise

      Germano, Jennifer M.; Van Zerr, Vanessa E.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Ken E.; Lamberski, Nadine (2014)
      Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense....
    • Space use as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)

      Hunter, Sally C.; Gusset, Markus; Miller, Lance J.; Somers, Michael J. (2014)
      A clear understanding of space use is required to more fully understand biological requirements of nonhuman animals in zoos, aid the design of exhibits, and maximize the animals' welfare. This study used electivity indexes to assess space use of two packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and the appropriateness of two naturalistic, outdoor enclosures at the San Diego Zoo and Bronx Zoo....
    • Moving towards greater success in translocations: recent advances from the herpetofauna

      Germano, Jennifer M.; Ewen, J. G.; Mushinsky, H.; McCoy, E.; Ortiz-Catedral, L. (2014)
      ...While the idea of moving an animal may seem simple at first glance, the reality is that translocations are inherently complex. In order to improve our rates of success, this complexity must be considered....
    • Rock iguana studbook (Genus Cyclura)

      Grant, Tandora D. (San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, 2014)
    • Nutrition and health in amphibian husbandry: Ex situ amphibian health and nutrition

      Ferrie, Gina M.; Alford, Vance C.; Atkinson, Jim; Baitchman, Eric; Barber, Diane; Blaner, William S.; Crawshaw, Graham; Daneault, Andy; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Finke, Mark; et al. (2014)
      Amphibian biology is intricate, and there are many inter‐related factors that need to be understood before establishing successful Conservation Breeding Programs (CBPs). Nutritional needs of amphibians are highly integrated with disease and their husbandry needs, and the diversity of developmental stages, natural habitats, and feeding strategies result in many different recommendations for proper care and feeding….
    • On the timing of an epidemic of amphibian chytridiomycosis in the highlands of Guatemala

      Mendelson, Joseph R.; Jones, Megan E. B.; Pessier, Allan P.; Toledo, Gabriela; Kabay, Edward H.; Campbell, Jonathan A. (2014)
      We analyzed museum specimens from two regions of Guatemala for the presence of the pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using both histological and PCR-based assays. We determined that the pathogen was present at one site at low prevalence in 1980 and 1981, immediately preceding drastic declines of amphibian in the region by 1983….
    • Transfer and detection of freshly isolated or cultured chicken (Gallus gallus) and exotic species' embryonic gonadal germ stem cells in host embryos

      Imus, Nastassja; Roe, Mandi; Charter, Suellen J.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Jensen, Thomas (2014)
      The management of captive avian breeding programs increasingly utilizes various artificial reproductive technologies, including in ovo sexing of embryos to adjust population sex ratios….. This project evaluated the possibility of using xenotransfer of embryonic gonadal germline stem cells (GGCs) for future reintroduction of their germplasm into the gene pool…..
    • Communal roosting sites are potential ecological traps: experimental evidence in a Neotropical harvestman

      Grether, Gregory F.; Levi, Abrahm; Antaky, Carmen; Shier, Debra M. (2014)
      Situations in which animals preferentially settle in low-quality habitat are referred to as ecological traps, and species that aggregate in response to conspecific cues, such as scent marks, that persist after the animals leave the area may be especially vulnerable. We tested this hypothesis on harvestmen (Prionostemma sp.) that roost communally in the rainforest understory….
    • Revised Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of the Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) 2014–2019

      Dunn, Andrew; Bergl, Richard; Byler, Dirck; Eben-Ebai, Samuel; Etiendem, Denis Ndeloh; Fotso, Roger; Ikfuingei, Romanus; Imong, Inaoyom; Jameson, Chris; Macfie, Elizabeth J.; et al. (IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group and Wildlife Conservation SocietyNew York, NY, USA, 2014)
      This plan outlines measures that should ensure that Cross River gorilla numbers are able to increase at key core sites, allowing them to extend into areas where they have been absent for many years.
    • Cerebral Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in a captive African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) in southern California

      Burns, Rachel E.; Bicknese, Elizabeth; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Drew, Clifton P.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Rideout, Bruce (2014)
      A 10-month-old, female African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) hatched and housed at the San Diego Zoo developed neurologic signs and died from a cerebral infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis…. To the authors’ knowledge, this infection has not previously been reported in a bird in the United States and has not been known to be naturally acquired in any species in this region of the world. The source of the infection was not definitively determined but was possibly feeder geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) imported from Southeast Asia where the parasite is endemic.
    • Molecular methods to detect Mycoplasma spp. and testudinid herpesvirus 2 in desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and implications for disease management

      Braun, Josephine; Schrenzel, Mark; Witte, Carmel L.; Gokool, Larisa; Burchell, Jennifer; Rideout, Bruce (2014)
      Mycoplasmas are an important cause of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and have been a main focus in attempts to mitigate disease-based population declines. Infection risk can vary with an animal's population of origin, making screening tests popular tools for determining infection status in individuals and populations…. Our findings suggest that mycoplasmas are not the only agents of concern and that a single M. agassizii ELISA or nasal flush qPCR alone failed to identify all potentially infected animals in a population….
    • Local knowledge and use of the Valle de Aguan Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura melanosterna, in Honduras

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Danoff-Burg, J.A.; Antunes, E.E.; Corneil, J.P. (2014)
      The harvesting of wildlife has had a devastating effect on global biodiversity. Here we investigate the perceived status of the Critically Endangered Valle de Aguán Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura melanosterna. We interviewed 132 residents of the Valle de Aguán, Honduras to: (1) examine their knowledge of the range and habitat preference; (2) document the use and trade; and (3) understand the level of awareness and openness to protection of this species. Our results indicate that these iguanas are primarily used for food. Though they are a small component of the local diet, consumption is occurring with a preference for gravid females. There are significant gender and geographic differences in consumption by humans. Though these harvesting actions contribute to the continuing decline of this species, our results demonstrate that there is a local belief that these iguanas are in danger of extinction, that conservation actions should occur, and that international involvement is welcome.
    • Behavior coding and ethogram of Guizhou snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi)

      Cui, Duoying; Niu, K.; Tan, Chia L.; Yang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yang, Y. (2014)
      We observed the behavior processes and habitats of free-ranging Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve (FNNR) and captive Guizhousnub-nosed monkeys in Wildlife Rescue Center in FNNR and Beijing Zoo from October 2009 to April 2014…. We found that there were some behavioral differences among Guizhou snub-nosed monkey, Sichuan snub-nosed monkey and Yunnan snub-nosed monkey in individual and social behaviors, and these might be related to the different habitats.
    • Intestinal helminths in wild Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon

      Conga, David F.; Bowler, Mark; Tantalean, Manuel; Montes, Daniel; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Mayor, Pedro (2014)
      …We examined 36 fecal samples from Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii ) collected from wild animals in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Samples were positive for helminth infection. Nematodes egg: Strongyloididae, Trypanoxyuris sp., Spirurid, and a cestode egg were identified.
    • Past experiences and future expectations generate context-dependent costs of foraging

      Berger-Tal, Oded; Embar, Keren; Kotler, Burt P.; Saltz, David (2014)
      We released Allenby’s gerbils (Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi) into an enclosure containing rich patches with equal amounts of food and manipulated the quality of the environment over time by reducing the amount of food in most (but not all) food patches and then increasing it again…. Specifically, in the second rich period, the gerbils spent more time foraging and harvested more food from the patches. Thus, seemingly identical environments can be treated as strikingly different by foragers as a function of their past experiences and future expectations.
    • Use of an outdoor enclosure by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at Beijing Zoo

      Cui, Duoying; Tan, Chia L.; Jinguo, Zhang; Ning, Liu; Xiaolong, Che (2014)
      The use of an outdoor enclosure and behaviors of 5 Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at Beijing Zoo were studied by means of instantaneous scan sampling, focal animal sampling and all- occurrence recording methods in August 2013. Malayan tapirs were more likely to use grassland, bare soil, deep-water pool and concrete surfaces than shallow water, and tapirs avoided stony ground….