• Hologenomic adaptations underlying the evolution of sanguivory in the common vampire bat

      Mendoza, M. Lisandra Zepeda; Xiong, Zijun; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Runge, Anne Kathrine; Thézé, Julien; Streicker, Daniel; Frank, Hannah K.; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Liu, Shengmao; Ryder, Oliver A.; et al. (2018)
      The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is one of only three obligate blood-feeding mammals. By sequencing both its genome and gut metagenome, the authors provide a holistic view of the evolutionary adaptations that underlie this unusual diet.
    • Into the night: camera traps reveal nocturnal activity in a presumptive diurnal primate, (Rhinopithecus brelichi)

      Tan, Chia L.; Yang, Yeqin; Niu, Kefeng (2013)
      Most living primates exhibit a daytime or nighttime activity pattern. Strict diurnality is thought to be the rule among anthropoids except for owl monkeys. Here we report the diel activity pattern of an Asian colobine, the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus brelichi, based on a methodology that relied on using 24-h continuously operating camera traps. We conducted the study in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve in Guizhou, China from March 22 to May 19 and from June 17 to October 14, 2011. After standardizing all time elements to a meridian-based time according to the geographic coordinates of the study site, we showed unequivocally that the monkeys, though predominantly diurnal, exhibited activity beyond daylight hours throughout the study. Specifically, their activity at night and during twilight periods suggests a complex interplay of behavioral adaptations, among others, to living in a temperate environment where day length and food resources fluctuate substantially across seasons. We contend that, under prevailing ecological conditions, so-called strictly diurnal primates may adjust their activity schedule opportunistically in order to increase energy intake. We also discuss the advantages of using camera traps in primate studies, and how the standardized use of meridian-based time by researchers would benefit comparisons of diel activity patterns among primates.
    • Phenotypic variability along a climatic gradient in a perennial afrotropical rainforest understorey herb

      Ley, Alexandra C.; Herzog, Patrick; Lachmuth, Susanne; Abwe, Abwe E.; Christian, Mbella F.; Sesink Clee, Paul R.; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Morgan, Bethan J.; Gonder, Mary K. (2018)
      Plants evolved in response to climatic conditions, which shaped their geographic distribution, functional traits and genetic composition. In the face of climatic changes, plants have to react by either genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity or geographic range shift....