• Alaotra reed lemur (Hapalemur alaotrensis). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Ralainasolo, F.B; Raveloarimalala, M.L; Randrianasolo, H.; Reuter, K.E; Heriniaina, R; Clarke, T; Ravaloharimanitra, M.; Volampeno, S.; Donati, G; Razafindramanana, J.; et al. (2020)
      Listed as Critically Endangered as the species has been observed to have undergone a population reduction of greater than or equal to 80% over a period of 27 years (three generations), due primarily to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible.
    • Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. hassi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Santa Cruz Marine Iguana is found on the islands of Santa Cruz, Baltra, Seymour Norte, Plaza Sur, Plaza Norte, and very likely other satellite cays in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The estimated extent of occurrence is 1,439 km2 by minimum convex polygon and the area of occupancy is estimated at 580 km2 . The population size is poorly known and crudely estimated at 2,000–13,000 total iguanas with fewer than 7,800 mature individuals. Genetic data indicate a small effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. This iguana is threatened by invasive alien Black Rats, Norway Rats, feral cats, and free-roaming pigs and dogs. Santa Cruz Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from stress, marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of further invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. Land-based tourist presence and intensity has been shown to have a significant overall negative effect on iguana health. The population is estimated to have been reduced by at least 30–40% over the last three generations (18–24 years) due to the impacts of invasive alien predators, oil spills, low effective population size, and cyclic feast/famine fluctuations. Without significant invasive species and pollution control, declines are projected to continue in the near future, with a percent reduction of at least 20–30% estimated over the past two generations and one generation into the future. This subspecies qualifies for listing as Endangered
    • Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. godzilla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Punta Pitt Marine Iguana is found only on the northern and eastern part of San Cristóbal Island and very likely the satellite islets in this region in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The estimated extent of occurrence is 257 km2 by minimum convex polygon and the area of occupancy is estimated at 188 km2. The population size is poorly known and was crudely estimated at 50–400 total iguanas on the entire island in 2004. A more recent mark-resight study calculated 147 mature adults at the largest subpopulation of this new subspecies designation. Genetic data indicate a critically low effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. This iguana is threatened by invasive alien Black Rats, Norway Rats, feral cats, and free-roaming pigs and dogs. Punta Pitt Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from stress, marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of further invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. Land-based tourist presence and intensity has been shown to have a significant overall negative effect on iguana health.
    • Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. hayampi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Marchena Marine Iguana is found only on the island of Marchena in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy is estimated at 140 km2 . The population size is poorly known and estimated at 1,000–40,000 total iguanas, with fewer than 6,000 mature individuals. Genetic data indicate a critically low effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. Marchena Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. This subspecies qualifies for listing as Endangered.
    • Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. jeffreysi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Wolf Marine Iguana is found on the islands of Wolf, Darwin, and Roca Redonda in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The estimated extent of occurrence is 1,058 km2 by minimum convex polygon and the area of occupancy is estimated at 16 km2 using a 2x2 km grid overlay. The population size is poorly known and estimated at 600–2,300 total iguanas, with fewer than 1,380 mature individuals. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. Wolf Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. This subspecies qualifies for listing as Endangered.
    • Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. mertensi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The San Cristóbal Marine Iguana is found only on the southern and western part of San Cristóbal Island and very likely the satellite islets in this region in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The estimated extent of occurrence is 398 km2 by minimum convex polygon and the area of occupancy is estimated at 240 km2 . The population size is poorly known and was crudely estimated at 50–400 total iguanas on San Cristóbal in 2004, although this is under-estimated as a more recent mark-resight study calculated 300 mature adults at the largest subpopulation. Genetic data indicate a critically low effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. This iguana is threatened by invasive alien Black Rats, Norway Rats, feral cats, and free-roaming pigs and dogs. San Cristóbal Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from stress, marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of further invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. Land-based tourist presence and intensity has been shown to have a significant overall negative effect on iguana health.
    •  Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. nanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Genovesa Marine Iguana is found only on the island of Genovesa in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy is estimated at 28 km2 . The population size is poorly known and estimated at 900–15,000 total iguanas, with fewer than 9,000 mature individuals. Genetic data indicate a moderate effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. Genovesa Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. Land-based tourist presence and intensity has been shown to have a significant overall negative effect on iguana health. This subspecies qualifies for listing as Critically Endangered.
    • Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. sielmanni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Pinta Marine Iguana is found only on the island of Pinta in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy is estimated at 92 km2 . The population size is poorly known and estimated at 800–6,000 total iguanas with fewer than 3,600 mature individuals. Genetic data indicate a low to moderate effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. Pinta Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. This subspecies qualifies for listing as Critically Endangered.
    • Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. trillmichi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Santa Fé Marine Iguana is found only on the island of Santa Fé in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy is estimated at 44 km2 . The population size is poorly known and estimated at 3,000–16,000 total iguanas with fewer than 9,600 mature individuals. Genetic data indicate a low to moderate effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. Santa Fé Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. Land-based tourist presence and intensity has been shown to have a significant overall negative effect on iguana health.
    • Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. venustissimus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Española Marine Iguana is found on the islands of Española, Floreana, Gardner-by-Floreana, Champion, and very likely their satellite cays in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The estimated extent of occurrence is 1,184 km2 by minimum convex polygon and the area of occupancy is estimated at 308 km 2 . The population size is poorly known and crudely estimated at 3,700–37,000 total iguanas with fewer than 22,200 mature individuals. Genetic data indicate a small to moderate effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. This iguana is threatened by invasive alien Black Rats, feral cats, and free-roaming pigs and dogs. Española Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from stress, marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of further invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. Land-based tourist presence and intensity has been shown to have a significant overall negative effect on iguana health. This subspecies qualifies for listing as Endangered.
    • Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. wikelskii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Santiago Marine Iguana is found on the islands of Santiago, Bartolomé, Pinzón, Rábida, and very likely nearby islets in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The estimated extent of occurrence is 1,164 km2 by minimum convex polygon and the area of occupancy is estimated at 444 km2 . The population size is poorly known and estimated at 450–4,000 total iguanas, with fewer than 2,400 mature individuals. Genetic data indicate a critically low effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. Invasive Black Rats threaten this iguana more severely when compared to other subspecies, as the islands in its distribution have scarce food resources for rats. Santiago Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from stress, marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. Land-based tourist presence and intensity has been shown to have a significant overall negative effect on iguana health....
    • An assessment of wildlife use by northern Laos nationals

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Glikman, Jenny A. (2020)
      Unsustainable wildlife trade is a well-publicized area of international concern in Laos. Historically rich in both ethnic and biological diversity, Laos has emerged in recent years as a nexus for cross-border trade in floral and faunal wildlife, including endangered and threatened species. However, there has been little sustained research into the scale and scope of consumption of wildlife by Laos nationals themselves. Here, we conducted 100 semistructured interviews to gain a snapshot of consumption of wildlife in northern Laos, where international and in some cases illegal wildlife trade is known to occur. We found that although bear bile for medicine was the most common product consumed, individuals also used a variety of other products, including animals considered endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN. The majority of animals we found consumed are classified as “Vulnerable” or “Least Threatened” by the IUCN; however, sufficient demand for a species can cause increased, rapid decline in the species’ population and significantly increase the challenge of conserving them. These results therefore illuminate where conservation priorities should shift towards, so that stable-yet-consumed species do not mirror the fate of highly trafficked animals.
    • Augmentation of the Puaiohi population through captive propagation and release on the Alakai Plateau, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

      Switzer, Richard A.; Lieberman, Alan A.; Nelson, J.; Crampton, L.; Soorae, P.S. (IUCN Species Survival Commission, Re-introduction Specialist Group and Abu Dhabi, AE : Environment Agency-Abu DhabiGland, Switzerland, 2013)
      The Puaiohi, also known as the small Kauai thrush, is listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN/BirdLife and Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It is one of only two remaining Hawaiian species in the genus Myadestes, formerly comprising six Hawaiian species....
    • Betsileo woolly lemur (Avahi betsileo). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence of this species covers less than 1,470 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
    • Black lemur (Eulemur macaco). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Andriantsimanarilafy, R.R; Borgerson, C.; Clarke, T; Colquhoun, I.C; Cotton, A; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Heriniaina, R; Irwin, M; Johnson, S; et al. (2020)
      The range of the species is severely fragmented and remaining areas of forest are under anthropogenic pressure (Mittermeier et al. 2010, Tinsman et al. 2019). Given this, and that the overall population size is suspected to be in decline at a rate of >50% over three generations, the current assessment lists Eulemur macaco as Endangered.
    • Brachylophus gau. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Fisher, R.; Hathaway, S.; Gray, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      Gau Banded Iguanas are known to occur only on Gau Island, Fiji, and have an estimated extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of 220 km2 . Over 50% of the natural habitat of Gau has been degraded or converted due to illegal forest burning practices and free-roaming domestic goat competitors. The iguana population is suspected to have declined correspondingly during the last 30–45 years (three generations). There is continuing predation pressure on iguanas from invasive alien rats, feral cats, and free-roaming domestic pigs. Without conservation intervention, habitat degradation observed during the last 20 years is projected to cause a further 10–20% decline over the next 10–15 years.
    • California condor recovery: a work in progress

      Wallace, Michael P.; Lamont, Miles M. (Hancock House PublishersToronto, Ontario, Canada. Surrey, BC, Canada., 2014)
    • Conolophus pallidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Gentile, G.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Barrington Land Iguana is only found on Santa Fé (Barrington) Island, Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador, and has an estimated area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of 40 km2 . Based on the denuded landscape caused by non-native goats, historic human consumption, and low numbers of iguanas observed in the 1960s–1970s, it is estimated that the iguana population had been reduced by at least 50% up to a point three generations in the past (52 years) and probably continued until after the goats were eradicated in 1972. The most recent survey in 2005 estimated their population to be 3,500–4,000 mature adults and potentially stable, although it was unknown if they had neared carrying capacity. Molecular analysis also shows extremely low genetic variation and richness compared to sampled populations of the Common Land Iguana (Conolophus subcristatus). Heavy predation pressure on this congregatory nesting iguana by Galápagos Hawks may have affected the rate of population recovery since goats were eradicated (1972). The recent introduction to the island of >500 juvenile Española Tortoises that compete with iguanas for scarce food resources may have an impact on the future stability of the iguana population.
    • Conventional seed banking to support species survival in the wild: Introduction

      Walters, Christina; Maschinski, Joyce; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      One in five plant species are at risk of extinction worldwide. Growing concerns for the loss of plant genetic diversity and species’ extinctions, as well as advancing knowhow to make successful conservation collections, motivates CPC Network scientists to collect seeds from wild populations and bank them. The great diversity of plants throughout the world helps define our sense of place and our cultural heritage....
    • Crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reuter, K.E; Eppley, Timothy M.; Hending, D; Pacifici, M; Semel, B.; Zaonarivelo, J. (2020)
      A population reduction of greater than or equal to 50% is suspected to be met in the future over a time period of 25 years (three generations based on an 8.4-year generation time, Pacifici et al. 2013). This is based on a continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.