• Energetic costs of locomotion in bears: is plantigrade locomotion energetically economical?

      Pagano, Anthony M.; Carnahan, Anthony M.; Robbins, Charles T.; Owen, Megan A.; Batson, Tammy; Wagner, Nate; Cutting, Amy; Nicassio-Hiskey, Nicole; Hash, Amy; Williams, Terrie M. (2018)
      Ursids are the largest mammals to retain a plantigrade posture. This primitive posture has been proposed to result in reduced locomotor speed and economy relative to digitigrade and unguligrade species, particularly at high speeds....
    • Terrestrial locomotion and other adaptive behaviors in howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) living in forest fragments

      Serio-Silva, J. C.; Ramirez-Julian, R.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Chapman, C. A.; Reyna, R.; Chapman, C. A. (Springer NatureNew York, 2019)
      Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) are arguably one of the most successful primates in coping with highly fragmented habitats because of their flexible, yet mainly folivorous, diet. While they are able to survive, many other arboreal primate species appear to gradually disappear from these anthropogenic landscapes....