• Effects of body size on estimation of mammalian area requirements

      Noonan, Michael J.; Fleming, Christen H.; Tucker, Marlee A.; Kays, Roland; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Abrahms, Briana; Alberts, Susan C.; Ali, Abdullahi H.; Altmann, Jeanne; et al. (2020)
      Accurately quantifying species’ area requirements is a prerequisite for effective area‐based conservation. This typically involves collecting tracking data on species of interest and then conducting home‐range analyses. Problematically, autocorrelation in tracking data can result in space needs being severely underestimated. Based on the previous work, we hypothesized the magnitude of underestimation varies with body mass, a relationship that could have serious conservation implications. To evaluate this hypothesis for terrestrial mammals, we estimated home‐range areas with global positioning system (GPS) locations from 757 individuals across 61 globally distributed mammalian species with body masses ranging from 0.4 to 4000 kg. We then applied block cross‐validation to quantify bias in empirical home‐range estimates. Area requirements of mammals <10 kg were underestimated by a mean approximately15%, and species weighing approximately100 kg were underestimated by approximately50% on average. Thus, we found area estimation was subject to autocorrelation‐induced bias that was worse for large species. Combined with the fact that extinction risk increases as body mass increases, the allometric scaling of bias we observed suggests the most threatened species are also likely to be those with the least accurate home‐range estimates. As a correction, we tested whether data thinning or autocorrelation‐informed home‐range estimation minimized the scaling effect of autocorrelation on area estimates. Data thinning required an approximately93% data loss to achieve statistical independence with 95% confidence and was, therefore, not a viable solution. In contrast, autocorrelation‐informed home‐range estimation resulted in consistently accurate estimates irrespective of mass. When relating body mass to home range size, we detected that correcting for autocorrelation resulted in a scaling exponent significantly >1, meaning the scaling of the relationship changed substantially at the upper end of the mass spectrum.
    • Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from mammalian endangered species

      Ben-Nun, Inbar Friedrich; Montague, Susanne C.; Houck, Marlys L.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Verma P.; Sumer H. (Humana PressNew York, NY, 2015)
      For some highly endangered species there are too few reproductively capable animals to maintain adequate genetic diversity, and extraordinary measures are necessary to prevent their extinction. Cellular reprogramming is a means to capture the genomes of individual animals as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which may eventually facilitate reintroduction of genetic material into breeding populations. Here, we describe a method for generating iPSCs from fibroblasts of mammalian endangered species.
    • Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi and other trypanosomatids in frequently-hunted wild mammals from the Peruvian Amazon

      Morales, E. Angelo; Mayor, Pedro; Bowler, Mark; Aysanoa, Esar; Pérez-Velez, Erika S.; Pérez, Jocelyn; Ventocilla, Julio A.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Lescano, Andrés G. (2017)
      To better understand the ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, we evaluated the prevalence of T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids in four orders of wild mammals hunted and consumed by inhabitants of three remote indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Of 300 wild mammals sampled, 115 (38.3%) were infected with trypanosomatids and 15 (5.0%) with T. cruzi....
    • What evidence exists on the effectiveness of different types of olfactory lures as attractants for invasive mammalian predators? A systematic map protocol

      Price, Catherine J.; Banks, Peter B.; Greggor, Alison L. (2019)
      Alien mammalian predators are a major cause of species extinction and decline globally. Baits and lures, usually human-food based (for example meat, nuts or oils), are widely deployed in trapping programs to attract target species, but their effectiveness compared to other types of olfactory lures, for example social odours or prey odours, has never been systematically examined. Depending on the context, there can be high proportions of non-target captures, for example when targeting feral cats using cage traps, or low capture success, for example, when targeting introduced rats on tropical islands. Here we use a systematic process to map evidence on the effectiveness of different categories of olfactory attractants for invasive mammalian predators within different ecological contexts. We aim to look for where evidence clusters and knowledge gaps occur, for example, across different lure types or across different habitat-types, and highlight opportunities for future research into behaviourally-relevant olfactory lures.