• Communal roosting sites are potential ecological traps: experimental evidence in a Neotropical harvestman

      Grether, Gregory F.; Levi, Abrahm; Antaky, Carmen; Shier, Debra M. (2014)
      Situations in which animals preferentially settle in low-quality habitat are referred to as ecological traps, and species that aggregate in response to conspecific cues, such as scent marks, that persist after the animals leave the area may be especially vulnerable. We tested this hypothesis on harvestmen (Prionostemma sp.) that roost communally in the rainforest understory….
    • Ctenosaura quinquecarinata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Ubeda, M.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Malone, C.L.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Five-keeled Spiny-tailed Iguana is known from three core areas that are isolated and distant from each other, along the Pacific versant of Nicaragua and northwestern Costa Rica. The estimated extent of occurrence surrounding all known localities is 27,316 km2 , but fine-scale distribution, or population size and structure, within these three areas is not known. These iguanas are very rare in some localities but believed to be in greater abundance in intact forests. The iguanas are found in several protected areas. The region’s tropical and subtropical forest habitat has been extensively degraded for agriculture, cattle ranching, and urbanization. It is suspected there has been a decline in the iguana population correlated with this habitat loss. Although habitat degradation is ongoing, the majority of this loss occurred more than three generations ago. They are extensively hunted for human use and intentionally persecuted in the misbelief they are poisonous. They are removed from the wild for the pet trade, although this trade is also supplied from captive sources. They occur in mildly human-impacted areas, such as suburban areas and crop/ranchlands; however, here they are threatened by fires set intentionally to regenerate the fields. In these areas, iguanas are also more vulnerable to predation by free-ranging, and feral cats and dogs. Survival may be limited as a result of this predation pressure. While it is believed the Fivekeeled Spiny-tailed Iguana faces serious threats, and are not likely to be Least Concern, they are classified as Data Deficient because necessary data are lacking at this time to qualify the species within threatened thresholds.