• Chemical signals of age, sex and identity in black rhinoceros

      Linklater, W. L.; Mayer, K.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2013)
      Olfactory communication may be particularly important to black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, because they are solitary living and have comparatively poor eyesight but their populations are structured by inter-and intrasexual relationships. Understanding olfactory functions and processes might achieve better conservation management but their study in rhinoceros remains anecdotal or descriptive….
    • Giant pandas use odor cues to discriminate kin from nonkin

      Gilad, Oranit; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Owen, Megan A.; Zhou, Xiaoping (2016)
      Sociality is an important factor in both the mechanism and function of kin recognition, yet it is little explored in solitary species. While there may be future opportunities for nepotistic functions of kin discrimination among solitary species, the ability to discriminate kin from nonkin may still have important roles in social regulation. The solitary giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca offers a good model system to explore kin discrimination in a solitary mammal. As kin discrimination in many other mammals is olfactorily mediated, we investigated whether giant pandas are able to discriminate odor cues from daughters even after months and years of separation. Our results indicate that giant pandas are capable of discriminating between kin and nonkin using odor cues available in urine and body odor. Daughters preferentially investigated the odors of unrelated adult female pandas over the odors of their mothers, and mothers spent more time investigating the odors of unrelated age-matched female pandas over those from their daughters. Because these studies were conducted months or years after the mother–daughter period of dependency ended, it is still unclear what mechanism is used for recognition. Long-term olfactory memories and phenotype matching should both be considered, and further studies are required for such determination.
    • Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise

      Germano, Jennifer M.; Van Zerr, Vanessa E.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Ken E.; Lamberski, Nadine (2014)
      Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense....
    • What evidence exists on the effectiveness of different types of olfactory lures as attractants for invasive mammalian predators? A systematic map protocol

      Price, Catherine J.; Banks, Peter B.; Greggor, Alison L. (2019)
      Alien mammalian predators are a major cause of species extinction and decline globally. Baits and lures, usually human-food based (for example meat, nuts or oils), are widely deployed in trapping programs to attract target species, but their effectiveness compared to other types of olfactory lures, for example social odours or prey odours, has never been systematically examined. Depending on the context, there can be high proportions of non-target captures, for example when targeting feral cats using cage traps, or low capture success, for example, when targeting introduced rats on tropical islands. Here we use a systematic process to map evidence on the effectiveness of different categories of olfactory attractants for invasive mammalian predators within different ecological contexts. We aim to look for where evidence clusters and knowledge gaps occur, for example, across different lure types or across different habitat-types, and highlight opportunities for future research into behaviourally-relevant olfactory lures.