• A systematic survey of the integration of animal behavior into conservation

      Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Carroll, Scott; Fisher, Robert N.; Mesnick, Sarah L.; Owen, Megan A.; Saltz, David; St. Clair, Colleen Cassady; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2016)
      The role of behavioral ecology in improving wildlife conservation and management has been the subject of much recent debate. We sought to answer 2 foundational questions about the current use of behavioral knowledge in conservation: To what extent is behavioral knowledge used in wildlife conservation and management, and how does the use of animal behavior differ among conservation fields in both frequency and types of use? We searched the literature for intersections between key fields of animal behavior and conservation and created a systematic heat map (i.e., graphical representation of data where values are represented as colors) to visualize relative efforts. Some behaviors, such as dispersal and foraging, were commonly considered (mean [SE] of 1147.38 [353.11] and 439.44 [108.85] papers per cell, respectively). In contrast, other behaviors, such as learning, social, and antipredatory behaviors were rarely considered (mean [SE] of 33.88 [7.62], 44.81 [10.65], and 22.69 [6.37] papers per cell, respectively). In many cases, awareness of the importance of behavior did not translate into applicable management tools. Our results challenge previous suggestions that there is little association between the fields of behavioral ecology and conservation and reveals tremendous variation in the use of different behaviors in conservation. We recommend that researchers focus on examining underutilized intersections of behavior and conservation themes for which preliminary work shows a potential for improving conservation and management, translating behavioral theory into applicable and testable predictions, and creating systematic reviews to summarize the behavioral evidence within the behavior-conservation intersections for which many studies exist.
    • After the installation

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Lange, Jimmy; Coffey, Emily; Forbes, Holly; Ceska, Jennifer; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      A reintroduction will have a higher chance of successful establishment if it receives water and weeding after installation. Keeping land managers apprised of the performance of the rare species and engaging them in active site management is critical for long-term population persistence.
    • Augmentation of the Puaiohi population through captive propagation and release on the Alakai Plateau, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

      Switzer, Richard A.; Lieberman, Alan A.; Nelson, J.; Crampton, L.; Soorae, P.S. (IUCN Species Survival Commission, Re-introduction Specialist Group and Abu Dhabi, AE : Environment Agency-Abu DhabiGland, Switzerland, 2013)
      The Puaiohi, also known as the small Kauai thrush, is listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN/BirdLife and Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It is one of only two remaining Hawaiian species in the genus Myadestes, formerly comprising six Hawaiian species....
    • Body size, not phylogenetic relationship or residency, drives interspecific dominance in a little pocket mouse community

      Chock, Rachel Y.; Shier, Debra M.; Grether, Gregory F. (2018)
      The role of interspecific aggression in structuring ecological communities can be important to consider when reintroducing endangered species to areas of their historic range that are occupied by competitors. We sought to determine which species is the most serious interference competitor of the endangered Pacific pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris pacificus, and more generally, whether interspecific aggression in rodents is predicted by body size, residency status or phylogenetic relatedness....
    • Cache pilfering in a granivore guild: Implications for reintroduction management

      Chock, Rachel Y.; Grether, Gregory F.; Shier, Debra M. (2019)
      Reintroduction programs that release endangered species back into areas from which they have been extirpated rarely take competitive interactions between species into account....
    • Center for Plant Conservation's Best Practice Guidelines for the reintroduction of rare plants

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A. (2017)
      Recent estimates indicate that one-fifth of botanical species worldwide are considered at risk of becoming extinct in the wild. One available strategy for conserving many rare plant species is reintroduction, which holds much promise especially when carefully planned by following guidelines and when monitored long-term. We review the Center for Plant Conservation Best Reintroduction Practice Guidelines and highlight important components for planning plant reintroductions. Before attempting reintroductions practitioners should justify them, should consider alternative conservation strategies, understand threats, and ensure that these threats are absent from any recipient site. Planning a reintroduction requires considering legal and logistic parameters as well as target species and recipient site attributes. Carefully selecting the genetic composition of founders, founder population size, and recipient site will influence establishment and population growth. Whenever possible practitioners should conduct reintroductions as experiments and publish results. To document whether populations are sustainable will require long-term monitoring for decades, therefore planning an appropriate monitoring technique for the taxon must consider current and future needs. Botanical gardens can play a leading role in developing the science and practice of plant reintroduction.
    • Conservation translocations: a review of common difficulties and promising directions

      Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, D. T.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2020)
      Translocations are a common conservation and management strategy, but despite their popularity, translocations are a high-cost endeavor with a history of failures. It is therefore imperative to maximize their success by learning from our collective experience....
    • Hierarchical dominance structure in reintroduced California condors: correlates, consequences, and dynamics

      Sheppard, James; Walenski, Matthew; Wallace, Michael P.; Vargas Velazco, J.J.; Porras, C.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2013)
      Populations of reintroduced California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) develop complex social structures and dynamics to maintain stable group cohesion, and birds that do not successfully integrate into group hierarchies have highly impaired survivability. Consequently, improved understanding of condor socioecology is needed to inform conservation management strategies…
    • Implementing the reintroduction

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Good logistical preparation will make installation day run smoothly. Ensure that the plants or seed plots are labeled, mapped, and recorded in such a way that they can be monitored for many years into the future.
    • Improving success of rare plant seed reintroductions: a case study of Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana, a rare legume with dormant seeds

      Maschinski, Joyce; Possley, Jennifer; Walters, Christina; Hill, Lisa; Krueger, Lisa; Hazelton, Dallas (2018)
      Recent reviews of rare plant reintroduction success indicate that far fewer studies have been conducted with seeds than whole plants, and of these, less than 10% have established or had long-term population persistence reported. Because seed reintroductions are relatively less expensive than plant reintroductions, determining ways to increase efficacy of using seeds to establish rare populations has conservation benefits....
    • Justifying and deciding whether to conduct a reintroduction or other conservation translocation

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Reintroduction is not the first step toward the conservation of a species, but rather follows a careful process of gathering information about the species, threats, alternative actions, and future needs. There are several considerations for justifying a reintroduction.
    • Mitigation-driven translocations: are we moving wildlife in the right direction?

      Germano, Jennifer M.; Field, Kimberleigh J; Griffiths, Richard A; Clulow, Simon; Foster, Jim; Harding, Gemma; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2015)
      Despite rapid growth in the field of reintroduction biology, results from scientific research are often not applied to translocations initiated when human land‐use change conflicts with the continued persistence of a species' population at a particular site....
    • Preparing the reintroduction

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Careful planning of biological, ecological, political, and financial support for the reintroduction will help ensure success. Designing a reintroduction entails linking genetic source to the recipient site characteristics
    • Rare plant reintroduction and other conservation translocations: Introduction

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      The ultimate goal of rare plant conservation is to ensure that unique taxa experience continued evolution within a natural context. The science of reintroduction is rapidly evolving.
    • Righting past wrongs and ensuring the future

      Moehrenschlager, Axel; Shier, Debra M.; Moorhouse, Tom P.; Price, Mark R. Stanley (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013)
      The near-exponential growth in the frequency of reintroductions surely indicates that reintroductions are now a highly effective tool to combat the increasing loss of global biodiversity. This chapter discusses the questions regarding risks, the initiation of reintroductions, the refinement of reintroduction techniques and evaluations of reintroduction programme success. It examines key components that comprise the status quo of reintroduction science and proposed crucial advancements where appropriate. The remainder of this chapter also examines the increasing challenges and possible responses of the future, particularly within the context of emerging infectious diseases, increasing habitat loss and climate change. It outlines some of the ways in which rigour could be implemented to improve the success rates - and their definition - of reintroductions. The chapter poses the question of whether reintroductions are on the verge of a disciplinary shift within the conservation toolbox.
    • Use of scent ecology to improve reintroduction outcomes: applications for Tasmanian devils

      Shier, Debra M.; Reid-Wainscoat, Elizabeth E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Fox, Samantha; Pemberton, David; Belov, Katherine (CSIROClayton South, Australia, 2019)
    • West Indian iguana Cyclura spp reintroduction and recovery programmes: Zoo support and involvement

      Grant, Tandora D.; Hudson, R. D. (2015)
      Many West Indian rock iguanas Cyclura spp comprise small restricted island populations that are threatened by habitat conversion and degradation, free-ranging domestic animals and invasive species. In the 1980s, concerted conservation efforts were initiated for Caribbean iguanas, using a combination of captive-breeding programmes and head-starting of wild-collected hatchlings for reintroduction, and habitat protection….