• Are current research funding structures sufficient to address rapid Arctic change in a meaningful way?

      Ibarguchi, Gabriela; Rajdev, Vinay; Murray, Maribeth S. (Norwegian Polar Institute, 2018)
      Arctic environmental changes already impact regional ecosystems, economies and northerncommunities, and are having increasing influence on many aspects of the global system.Interest in the Arctic has increased in concert with our improved awareness of potentialchanges; however, research funding has not necessarily kept pace with the need to improveour understanding of Arctic system change to inform evidence-based decision making.Analyses of data on research funding trends (2003–14) in Canada, the USA and the EUindicate that less than 3% of the total budget the funding agencies considered is allocatedin any given year to Arctic-related research. Furthermore, alignment is uneven amongestablished scientific research priorities, existing societal needs and projects awarded fund-ing. New support mechanisms and improved alignment among resources, expertise andpriorities, including Indigenous research priorities, are vital to planning and adaptation inthe face of ongoing Arctic change.
    • Chemical signals of age, sex and identity in black rhinoceros

      Linklater, W. L.; Mayer, K.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2013)
      Olfactory communication may be particularly important to black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, because they are solitary living and have comparatively poor eyesight but their populations are structured by inter-and intrasexual relationships. Understanding olfactory functions and processes might achieve better conservation management but their study in rhinoceros remains anecdotal or descriptive….
    • Cocha Cashu Biological Station

      Groenendijk, Jessica; Swamy, Varun; Aliaga, Roxana P. Arauco; Ortiz, Verónica Chávez (2019)
    • Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

      Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; et al. (2014)
      Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades....
    • Current role, importance and characteristics of human dimensions in wildlife management, a preliminary assessment from European and North American scientific journals

      Lavadinovic, Vukan; Glikman, Jenny A.; Ulrich, Schraml (2017)
      Human dimensions (HD) of wildlife management is a young field of enquiry which develops in several different directions and deals with various topics. Despite it is possible that popular research topics exist in HD studies, there is no proper research that identifies their role and importance. Besides, there is lack of knowledge on HD studies’ worldwide distribution and research trends per different world regions.The aim of this research was to provide knowledge on current role and characteristics of Human dimensions in wildlife management by analyzing four parameters:  (1) proportion of HD studies, (2) current popular research topics in HD studies, (3) distribution of HD studies per world regions and (4) priorities in HD studies per world regions. For the purpose of this article, three journals such as The Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM), Human Dimensions of Wildlife (HDW) and European Journal of Wildlife Research (EJWR), which originate from North America and Europe, retrospectively, were analyzed for the period 2007-2012.Results of this preliminary work show that the proportion of HD studies, in the JWM and EJWR journals, was low, only 2.6%. Analysis of all three journals identified research topics like Large carnivores (15.07%); Wildlife conservation (13.88%); Wildlife management issues (13.88%); and Human-wildlife conflict (13.16%), as the most popular. A geographically biased manuscript distribution was evidenced as well as different popular research topics per world regions
    • Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa

      Maisels, F.; Strindberg, S.; Blake, S.; Wittemyer, G.; Hart, J.; Williamson, E. A.; Aba'a, R.; Abitsi, G.; Ambahe, R. D.; Amsini, F.; et al. (2013)
      African forest elephants-taxonomically and functionally unique-are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork) revealed that population size declined by ca. 62% between 2002-2011, and the taxon lost 30% of its geographical range. The population is now less than 10% of its potential size, occupying less than 25% of its potential range. High human population density, hunting intensity, absence of law enforcement, poor governance, and proximity to expanding infrastructure are the strongest predictors of decline. To save the remaining African forest elephants, illegal poaching for ivory and encroachment into core elephant habitat must be stopped. In addition, the international demand for ivory, which fuels illegal trade, must be dramatically reduced.
    • Do large birds experience previously undetected levels of hunting pressure in the forests of Central and West Africa?

      Whytock, Robin C.; Buij, Ralph; Virani, Munir Z.; Morgan, Bethan J. (2016)
      ...Village-based surveys of hunter offtake and surveys of bushmeat markets have shown that mammals and reptiles are affected most, followed by birds. However, hunters also consume some animals in forest camps and these may have been overlooked in surveys that have focused on bushmeat extracted from the forest....
    • Dynamics of male-female multimodal signaling behavior across the estrous cycle in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

      Owen, Megan A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; McGeehan, Laura; Zhou, Xiaoping; Lindburg, Donald G.; Koenig, W. (2013)
      Giant panda courtship behavior includes multimodal signaling assemblages consisting of olfactory, vocal, and postural elements. While signaling is generally conspicuous, successful copulation is inconsistently achieved in captivity, even when female behavioral and physiological data indicate that ovulation is imminent. We set out to characterize these complex patterns of social behavior by observing interactions between 26 unique pairs of giant pandas housed in adjoining pens throughout the females' reproductive cycle….
    • Ethical considerations when conservation research involves people

      Brittain, Stephanie; Ibbett, Harriet; Lange, Emiel; Dorward, Leejiah; Hoyte, Simon; Marino, Agnese; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Newth, Julia; Rakotonarivo, Sarobidy; Veríssimo, Diogo; et al. (2020)
      Social science is becoming increasingly important in conservation, with more studies involving methodologies that collect data from and about people. Conservation science is a normative and applied discipline designed to support and inform management and practice....
    • External reinfection of a fungal pathogen does not contribute to pathogen growth

      DiRenzo, Graziella V.; Tunstall, Tate S.; Ibáñez, Roberto; deVries, Maya S.; Longo, Ana V.; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Lips, Karen R. (2018)
      Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which has led to devastating declines in amphibian populations worldwide. Current theory predicts that Bd infections are maintained through both reproduction on the host’s skin and reinfection from sources outside of the host....
    • Fat-soluble vitamin and mineral comparisons between zoo-based and free-ranging koalas (phascolarctos cinereus)

      Schmidt, Debra A.; Pye, Geoffrey W.; Hamlin-Andrus, Chris C.; Ellis, William A.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Chen, Tai C.; Holick, Michael F. (2013)
      As part of a health investigation on koalas at San Diego Zoo, serum samples were analyzed from 18 free-ranging and 22 zoo-based koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus. Serum concentrations of calcium, chloride, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, zinc, and vitamins A, E, and 25(OH)D3 were quantified....
    • Glucocorticoid measurement in plasma, urates, and feathers from California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) in response to a human-induced stressor

      Glucs, Zeka E.; Smith, Donald R.; Tubbs, Christopher W.; Scherbinski, Jennie Jones; Welch, Alacia; Burnett, Joseph; Clark, Michael; Eng, Curtis; Finkelstein, Myra E. (2018)
      Vertebrates respond to stressful stimuli with the secretion of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), and measurements of these hormones in wild species can provide insight into physiological responses to environmental and human-induced stressors. California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) are a critically endangered and intensively managed avian species for which information on GC response to stress is lacking. Here we evaluated a commercially available I125 double antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for measurement of CORT and GC metabolites (GCM) in California condor plasma, urate, and feather samples. The precision and accuracy of the RIA assay outperformed the ELISA for CORT and GCM measurements, and CORT and GCM values were not comparable between the two assays for any sample type. RIA measurements of total CORT in condor plasma collected from 41 condors within 15 minutes of a handling stressor were highly variable (median = 70 ng/mL, range = 1–189 ng/mL) and significantly different between wild and captive condors (p = 0.02, two-tailed t-test, n = 10 wild and 11 captive). Urate GCM levels (median = 620 ng/g dry wt., range = 0.74–7200 ng/g dry wt., n = 216) significantly increased within 2 hr of the acute handling stressor (p = 0.032, n = 11 condors, one-tailed paired t-test), while feather section CORT concentrations (median = 18 pg/mm, range = 6.3–68 ng/g, n = 37) also varied widely within and between feathers. Comparison of multiple regression linear models shows condor age as a significant predictors of plasma CORT levels, while age, sex, and plasma CORT levels predicted GCM levels in urates collected within 30 min of the start of handling. Our findings highlight the need for validation when selecting an immunoassay for use with a new species, and suggest that non-invasively collected urates and feathers hold promise for assessing condor responses to acute or chronic environmental and human-induced stressors.
    • Identification of California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) estrogen receptor variants and their activation by xenoestrogens

      Felton, Rachel G.; Owen, Corie M.; Cossaboon, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Cynthia C.; Tubbs, Christopher W. (2020)
      California condors released in costal sites are exposed to high levels of xenoestrogens, particularly p,p'-DDE, through scavenging of marine mammal carcasses. As a result, coastal condors carry a higher contaminant loads and experience eggshell thinning when compared to their inland counterparts....
    • Incorporating mortality into habitat selection to identify secure and risky habitats for savannah elephants

      Roever, C. L.; van Aarde, R. J.; Chase, Michael J. (2013)
      Empirical models of habitat selection are increasingly used to guide and inform habitat-based management plans for wildlife species. However, habitat selection does not necessarily equate to habitat quality particularly if selection is maladaptive, so incorporating measures of fitness into estimations of occurrence is necessary to increase model robustness. Here, we incorporated spatially explicit mortality events with the habitat selection of elephants to predict secure and risky habitats in northern Botswana....
    • Induction of sperm hypermotility through membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRα): A teleost model of rapid, multifaceted, nongenomic progestin signaling

      Tan, Wenxian; Pang, Yefei; Tubbs, Christopher W.; Thomas, Peter (2018)
      Rapid progestin effects on sperm physiology have been described in a variety of vertebrate species. Here, we briefly review the signaling pathways mediating rapid progestin induction of sperm hypermotility and increased fertility in two teleost species, Atlantic croaker and southern flounder....
    • Inferring public interest from search engine data requires caution

      Correia, Ricardo A.; Di Minin, Enrico; Jarić, Ivan; Jepson, Paul; Ladle, Richard; Mittermeier, John; Roll, Uri; Soriano-Redondo, Andrea; Veríssimo, Diogo (2019)
    • Laboratory diagnostics

      Rideout, Bruce; Braun, Josephine; Pessier, Allan P.; Terio, Karen A.; McAloose, Denise; St. Leger, Judy (Academic PressSan Diego, CA, 2018)
      This chapter focuses on the challenges of using laboratory diagnostics in wildlife and how to choose an appropriate test and interpret the results. Very few diagnostic tests have been validated for use in wildlife, which creates challenges for the diagnostician because some of these tests must be used anyway, while others should be avoided....
    • Leaping forward in amphibian health and nutrition

      Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Ferrie, Gina M.; Morris, Cheryl; Pessier, Allan P.; Schad, Kristine; Stamper, M. Andrew; Gagliardo, Ron; Koutsos, Elizabeth; Valdes, Eduardo V. (2014)
      …In this manuscript, we describe and summarize the outcomes of this workshop with regards (a) the identified gaps in knowledge, (b) identified priorities for closing these gaps, and (c) compile a list of actions to address these priorities. Four general areas of improvement were identified in relation to how measurements are currently being taken to evaluate ex situ amphibian health: nutrition, infectious diseases, husbandry, and integrated biology including genetics and endocrinology….
    • Population abundance and habitat utilization of bottlenose dolphins in the Mississippi Sound. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater

      Miller, Lance J.; Mackey, A.D.; Solangi, M.; Kuczaj, S.A. (2013)
      Distance sampling principles were utilized to examine population density and abundance for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mississippi Sound. Information was collected during summer and winter to allow for examination of habitat utilization and abundance during two different seasons. Within the study area of the Mississippi Sound there are approximately 2225 bottlenose dolphins. The population was larger during the summer than during the winter months....
    • Quantity does not always mean quality: The importance of qualitative social science in conservation research

      Rust, Niki A.; Abrams, Amber; Challender, Daniel W. S.; Chapron, Guillaume; Ghoddousi, Arash; Glikman, Jenny A.; Gowan, Catherine H.; Hughes, Courtney; Rastogi, Archi; Said, Alicia; et al. (2017)
      Qualitative methods are important to gain a deep understanding of complex problems and poorly researched areas. They can be particularly useful to help explain underlying conservation problems....