• California condor recovery: a work in progress

      Wallace, Michael P.; Lamont, Miles M. (Hancock House PublishersToronto, Ontario, Canada. Surrey, BC, Canada., 2014)
    • Foraging behavior, contaminant exposure risk, and the stress response in wild California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

      Glucs, Zeka E.; Smith, Donald R.; Tubbs, Christopher W.; Bakker, Victoria J.; Wolstenholme, Rachel; Dudus, Kristina; Burnett, Joseph; Clark, Melissa; Clark, Michael; Finkelstein, Myra E. (2020)
      Wild California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) are frequently exposed to lead via lead-based ammunition ingestion, and recent studies indicate significant exposure to organochlorines (e.g. dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) for condors feeding on beach-cast marine mammals. We investigated the influence of contaminant exposure on condor glucocorticoid response through comparisons between wild and captive populations and identified modifiers of glucocorticoid release….
    • Health risks from lead-based ammunition in the environment

      Bellinger, David C.; Burger, Joanna; Cade, Tom J.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Finkelstein, Myra; Hu, Howard; Kosnett, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lanphear, Bruce; Pokras, Mark A.; et al. (2013)
      ...No rational deliberation about the use of lead-based ammunition can ignore the overwhelming evidence for the toxic effects of lead, or that the discharge of lead bullets and shot into the environment poses significant risks of lead exposure to humans and wildlife. Given the availability of non-lead ammunition for shooting and hunting (Thomas 2013), the use of lead-based ammunition that introduces lead into the environment can be reduced and eventually eliminated. This seems to be a reasonable and equitable action to protect the health of humans and wildlife....
    • Lead exposure risk from trash ingestion by the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus)

      Finkelstein, Myra E.; Brandt, Joseph; Sandhaus, Estelle; Grantham, Jesse; Mee, Allan; Schuppert, Patricia Jill; Smith, Donald R. (2015)
      Lead poisoning from ingestion of spent lead ammunition is one of the greatest threats to the recovery of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) in the wild…. Our results suggest that trash ingestion of nonammunition items does not pose a significant lead exposure risk to the California Condor population in California.
    • Lead in ammunition: A persistent threat to health and conservation

      Johnson, C. K.; Kelly, T. R.; Rideout, Bruce (2013)
      Many scavenging bird populations have experienced abrupt declines across the globe, and intensive recovery activities have been necessary to sustain several species, including the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). Exposure to lead from lead-based ammunition is widespread in condors and lead toxicosis presents an immediate threat to condor recovery, accounting for the highest proportion of adult mortality….
    • Two decades of cumulative impacts to survivorship of endangered California condors in California

      Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce; Grantham, Jesse; Brandt, Joseph; Burnett, L. Joseph; Sorenson, Kelly J.; George, Daniel; Welch, Alacia; Moen, David; Rasico, James; et al. (2015)
      …Lead poisoning, which was a major driver in the population's decline, was a leading cause of death accounting for the greatest adult mortality, and lead exposure remains the most significant threat. Recent lead ammunition reduction efforts in the condor range in California hold promise for improving the recovery potential for this population.