• Duration of maternal antibodies against canine distemper virus and hendra virus in pteropid bats

      Epstein, Jonathan H.; Baker, Michelle L.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Middleton, Deborah; Barr, Jennifer A.; DuBovi, Edward; Boyd, Victoria; Pope, Brian; Todd, Shawn; Crameri, Gary; et al. (2013)
      Old World frugivorous bats have been identified as natural hosts for emerging zoonotic viruses of significant public health concern, including henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra virus), Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Epidemiological studies of these viruses in bats often utilize serology to describe viral dynamics, with particular attention paid to juveniles, whose birth increases the overall susceptibility of the population to a viral outbreak once maternal immunity wanes. However, little is understood about bat immunology, including the duration of maternal antibodies in neonates. Understanding duration of maternally derived immunity is critical for characterizing viral dynamics in bat populations, which may help assess the risk of spillover to humans. We conducted two separate studies of pregnant Pteropus bat species and their offspring to measure the half-life and duration of antibodies to 1) canine distemper virus antigen in vaccinated captive Pteropus hypomelanus; and 2) Hendra virus in wild-caught, naturally infected Pteropus alecto. Both of these pteropid bat species are known reservoirs for henipaviruses. We found that in both species, antibodies were transferred from dam to pup. In P. hypomelanus pups, titers against CDV waned over a mean period of 228.6 days (95% CI: 185.4–271.8) and had a mean terminal phase half-life of 96.0 days (CI 95%: 30.7–299.7). In P. alecto pups, antibodies waned over 255.13 days (95% CI: 221.0–289.3) and had a mean terminal phase half-life of 52.24 days (CI 95%: 33.76–80.83). Each species showed a duration of transferred maternal immunity of between 7.5 and 8.5 months, which was longer than has been previously estimated. These data will allow for more accurate interpretation of age-related Henipavirus serological data collected from wild pteropid bats.
    • Rigorous wildlife disease surveillance

      Watsa, Mrinalini; Wildlife Disease Surveillance Focus Group; Erkenswick, G.; Prost, S.; Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Moore, Caroline; Kubiski, Steven V.; Witte, Carmel L.; Ogden, R.; Meredith, A.; et al. (2020)
      Evidence suggests that zoonotic (animal origin) coronaviruses have caused three recent emerging infectious disease (EID) outbreaks: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the search for an intermediate host for SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19), studies have identified SARS-CoV-2–like strains in bats (1) and pangolins (2), but these do not contain the same polybasic cleavage site that is present in SARS-CoV-2 (3). It is unknown what the intermediate host for this spillover event was because to date there are no international or national conventions on pathogen screening associated with animals, animal products, or their movements, and capacity for EID diagnostics is limited along much of the human-wildlife interface....
    • Survey of Plasmodium spp. in free-ranging neotropical primates from the Brazilian Amazon region impacted by anthropogenic actions

      Bueno, Marina G.; Rohe, Fabio; Kirchgatter, Karin; Di Santi, Silvia M. F.; Guimarães, Lilian O.; Witte, Carmel L.; Costa-Nascimento, Maria J.; Toniolo, Christina R. C.; Catão-Dias, José Luiz (2013)
      This study investigated Plasmodium spp. infection in free-ranging neotropical primates from Brazilian Amazon regions under the impact of major anthropogenic actions. Blood samples from 19 new world primates were collected and analyzed with microscopic and molecular procedures. The prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 21.0% (4/19) and PCR positive samples were identified as P. brasilianum. Considering the social-economic changes that the Amazon is facing, the prevalence of P. brasilianum infection highlights the necessity to closely monitor the movement of both human and non-human primate populations, in order to mitigate pathogen exposure and the introduction of new agents into previously naïve areas.