• A checklist of the iguanas of the world (Iguanidae; Iguaninae)

      Iguana Taxonomy Working Group (ITWG); Buckley, Larry J.; de Queiroz, Kevin; Grant, Tandora D.; Hollingsworth, Bradford D.; Iverson, John B.; Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Stephen, Catherine L.; Iverson, John B.; Grant, Tandora D.; et al. (2016)
      This annotated checklist of the world's iguanas (Iguanidae; Iguaninae) represents an update by the Iguana Taxonomy Working Group (ITWG) of its 2011 list. We recognize 44 extant species (19 subspecies across six species) in eight genera....
    • A diversity of biogeographies in an extreme Amazonian wetland habitat

      Householder, Ethan; Janovec, John; Tobler, Mathias W.; Wittmann, Florian; Myster, Randall W. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017)
      Amazonian wetlands are associated with lower species diversity relative to surrounding terra firme forests, as well as compositional turnover along strong hydro-edaphic gradients. Because species differ in their ecophysiological response to soil waterlogging, hydrological regime is likely a major determinant of the local diversity, species distribution and assemblage of plant communities in wetland habitats....
    • After the installation

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Lange, Jimmy; Coffey, Emily; Forbes, Holly; Ceska, Jennifer; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      A reintroduction will have a higher chance of successful establishment if it receives water and weeding after installation. Keeping land managers apprised of the performance of the rare species and engaging them in active site management is critical for long-term population persistence.
    • Alternatives to conventional seed banking: Introduction

      Maschinski, Joyce; Pence, Valerie; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      For exceptional (or non-orthodox) plants that cannot be conserved long-term using conventional seed banking methods, three alternatives traditionally used by botanical gardens are tissue culture, cryogenic storage, and field genebanks. (See Overview.) Each requires different institutional commitment to space, resources, staff time, and expertise....
    • Amphibian chytridiomycosis

      Pessier, Allan P.; Divers, S.; Mader, D. (ElsevierSt. Louis, 2014)
    • Animal cytogenetics

      Houck, Marlys L.; Lear, Teri L.; Charter, Suellen J.; Arsham, Marilyn S.; Barch, Margaret J.; Lawce, Helen J. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017)
      Chromosome karyotyping and gene mapping has been carried out for a wide variety of animal species and continues to expand. Cross-species chromosome painting, or Zoo-FISH, for example, can now be used to identify genome segments originating from a common ancestor that have been conserved between species for millions of years....
    • Annual variation in breeding success and changes in population density of Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Lago Preto Conservation Concession, Peru

      Bowler, Mark; Barton, C.; McCann-Wood, S.; Puertas, P.; Bodmer, R.; Veiga, Liza M.; Barnett, Adrian A.; Ferrari, Stephen F.; Norconk, Marilyn A. (Cambridge University PressCambridge, 2013)
    • Applications of animal behavior to conservation

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Greggor, Alison L.; Choe, Jae (Academic PressOxford, UK, 2019)
      Animal behavior can influence conservation outcomes, and can be used as a tool for diagnosing anthropogenic impacts and managing species’ recovery. Researchers from disparate backgrounds in animal behavior, most notably behavioral ecology and applied ethology, are using their research to contribute to conservation efforts, including reserve design, human disturbance, and reintroduction programs....
    • Bear Sensory Systems

      Sergiel, Agnieszka; Van Horn, Russell C.; Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (Springer International PublishingCham, 2019)
      The world’s bears evolved and diverged beginning about 20-25 million years ago. The surviving eight bear species live in diverse habitats whose physical characteristics create challenges that have influenced the evolution of bears’ sensory systems: vision, hearing, smell, touch, and taste....
    • Bears within the human landscape: Cultural and demographic factors influencing the use of bear parts in Cambodia and Laos

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Glikman, Jenny A.; Nevin, Owen; Convery, Ian; Davis, Peter (BoydellNewcastle, UK, 2019)
      Bears in Southeast Asia are declining across their range, primarily due to demand for their products, compounded by habitat loss. Although this decline has been observed in Cambodia and Laos, little research had been performed into in-country demand for bear products....
    • Bovidae, Antilocapridae, Giraffidae, Tragulidae, Hippopotamidae

      Jones, Megan E. B.; Gasper, D.J.; Mitchell, E.; Terio, Karen A.; McAloose, Denise; St. Leger, Judy (Academic PressSan Diego, CA, 2018)
    • Cathemeral

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Donati, Giuseppe; Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (Springer NatureNew York, 2019)
      Within this encyclopedia article, we provide an overview of the term “Cathemeral”. This is applied to the pattern of an organism’s activity that occurs during both the light and dark portions of the 24-h cycle....
    • Cleaning, processing, drying, and storing orthodox seeds

      Walters, Christina; Maschinski, Joyce; Havens, Kay; Vitt, Pati; Heineman, Katherine D.; Horn, Christa M.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      The old adage “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” applies to seed banking. Divide each accession and store each half at a different safe seed banking facility. Create curation packages to place inside storage packages. Seeds in curation packages can be used for testing initial and long-term viability. Seeds in storage packages are intended to be stored long-term.
    • Collecting and maintaining exceptional species in tissue culture and cryopreservation

      Pence, Valerie; Westwood, Murphy; Maschinski, Joyce; Powell, Christy; Sugii, Nellie; Fish, Diana; McGuinness, Julianne; Raven, Pat; Duval, Julian; Herrera-Mishler, Tomas; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Tissue culture and cryopreservation are alternative storage methods for exceptional species that produce few seeds or seed that are intolerant to drying or freezing. Adequately storing exceptional species requires specialized expertise, infrastructure, and greater resources than conventional seed storage....
    • Collecting seeds from wild rare plant populations

      Maschinski, Joyce; Walters, Christina; Guerrant, Ed; Murray, Sheila; Kunz, Michael; Schneider, Heather; Affolter, Jim; Gurnoe, Tony; Fraga, Naomi; Havens, Kay; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Species characteristics, legal parameters, and the purpose of the collection influence decisions about timing, locations, and numbers of seeds (or other tissues) that will need to be collected. Ethics of doing no harm to the wild rare plant population guide actions in the field....
    • Communities and uacaris: conservation initiatives in Brazil and Peru

      Bowler, Mark; Valsecchi, João; Queiroz, Helder L.; Bodmer, Richard; Puertas, Pablo; Veiga, Liza M.; Barnett, Adrian A.; Ferrari, Stephen F.; Norconk, Marilyn A. (Cambridge University PressCambridge, 2013)
    • Comparative pathology of ranaviruses and diagnostic techniques

      Miller, D.L.; Pessier, Allan P.; Hick, P.; Whittington, R.J.; Gray M.; Chinchar V. (SpringerNew York, 2015)
      Recognizing the pathological changes caused by ranaviruses, understanding how to properly collect test samples, and knowing what diagnostic tools to choose are key to detecting ranaviruses and in determining whether they are a factor in morbidity and mortality events. Whether infection occurs in fish, reptiles, or amphibians, clinical disease is typically acute and can affect a high proportion of the population. Among ectothermic vertebrates, affected individuals can present with hemorrhages, edema, and necrosis. Generally, microscopic examination reveals intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and necrosis of hematopoietic tissues, vascular endothelium, and epithelial cells. Ultimately, the type and severity of the lesions that develop vary depending upon the host species, type of ranavirus, or environmental factors. Our ability to identify lesions caused by ranaviruses is improving because of the knowledge gained from laboratory experiments and the improvement of existing, or development of new diagnostic tests. There is no single Gold Standard test for ranavirus detection, rather the diagnostic test chosen depends on the question asked. For example, a surveillance study may use quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect ranaviruses, but an investigation of a mortality event may use virus isolation, qPCR, histopathology, electron microscopy, and bioassay. To date, a treatment for ranavirus infections has not been found; however, vaccine development against iridoviruses is showing promise for both DNA and live vaccines within the aquaculture industry.
    • Comprehensive breeding techniques for the giant panda

      Martin-Wintle, Meghan S.; Kersey, David C.; Wintle, Nathan J. P.; Aitken-Palmer, Copper; Owen, Megan A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Comizzoli, Pierre; Brown, Janine L.; Holt, William V. (Springer International PublishingCham, 2019)
      The dramatic growth of the captive giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population exemplifies how the application of scientific findings to animal care and reproductive management can improve conservation breeding outcomes. Detailed behavioral studies of giant panda estrus, pregnancy and cub rearing have demonstrated the importance of husbandry management that supports natural reproductive behavior to enhance breeding success....
    • Conservation genetics of Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Ctenosaura oedirhina.

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Hudman, S.; Iverson, John B.; Grant, Tandora D.; Knapp, Charles R.; Pasachnik, Stesha A. (2016)
      Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Ctenosaura oedirhina, are assessed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Occurring in less than 1% of the available habitat on Roatán, due primarily to hunting... pressure, this species faces severe fragmentation.
    • Conservation marketing as a tool to promote human-wildlife coexistence

      Veríssimo, Diogo; Tully, Brooke; Douglas, Leo R.; Frank, Beatrice; Glikman, Jenny A.; Marchini, Silvio (Cambridge University Press, 2019)