• Bear Sensory Systems

      Sergiel, Agnieszka; Van Horn, Russell C.; Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (Springer International PublishingCham, 2019)
      The world’s bears evolved and diverged beginning about 20-25 million years ago. The surviving eight bear species live in diverse habitats whose physical characteristics create challenges that have influenced the evolution of bears’ sensory systems: vision, hearing, smell, touch, and taste....
    • Bears within the human landscape: Cultural and demographic factors influencing the use of bear parts in Cambodia and Laos

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Glikman, Jenny A.; Nevin, Owen; Convery, Ian; Davis, Peter (BoydellNewcastle, UK, 2019)
      Bears in Southeast Asia are declining across their range, primarily due to demand for their products, compounded by habitat loss. Although this decline has been observed in Cambodia and Laos, little research had been performed into in-country demand for bear products....
    • Behavior coding and ethogram of Guizhou snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi)

      Cui, Duoying; Niu, K.; Tan, Chia L.; Yang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yang, Y. (2014)
      We observed the behavior processes and habitats of free-ranging Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve (FNNR) and captive Guizhousnub-nosed monkeys in Wildlife Rescue Center in FNNR and Beijing Zoo from October 2009 to April 2014…. We found that there were some behavioral differences among Guizhou snub-nosed monkey, Sichuan snub-nosed monkey and Yunnan snub-nosed monkey in individual and social behaviors, and these might be related to the different habitats.
    • Behavioral adaptations of a large carnivore to human activity in an extremely arid landscape

      Barocas, Adi; Hefner R.; Ucko M.; Merkle J. A.; Geffen Eli (2018)
      Abstract Driven by the availability of food subsidies and landscape transformation, large carnivore populations are increasingly inhabiting the vicinity of humans. To persist in human proximity, while avoiding conflict and mortality, they must make adjustments in their spatial behavior....
    • Betsileo woolly lemur (Avahi betsileo). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence of this species covers less than 1,470 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
    • Biosphere reserve to transshipment Port: Travesty for Jamaica's Goat Islands.

      Grant, Tandora D. (2014)
      You know what is a huge bummer? Being a part of an amazing conservation success story to recover a species, only to reach the point where all those efforts appear lost. I know I’m not the only conservationist who has fought similar battles — many losing, but occasionally winning. I still have hope that reason will prevail and my colleagues and I can make further progress toward true recovery and the long-term goals of sustainability. The Jamaican Iguana (Cyclura collei) is a really big lizard that was thought to have been extinct for 40-something years when a small number of individuals were found in the rugged limestone interior of the Hellshire Hills on the southern coast of Jamaica…
    • Black lemur (Eulemur macaco). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Andriantsimanarilafy, R.R; Borgerson, C.; Clarke, T; Colquhoun, I.C; Cotton, A; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Heriniaina, R; Irwin, M; Johnson, S; et al. (2020)
      The range of the species is severely fragmented and remaining areas of forest are under anthropogenic pressure (Mittermeier et al. 2010, Tinsman et al. 2019). Given this, and that the overall population size is suspected to be in decline at a rate of >50% over three generations, the current assessment lists Eulemur macaco as Endangered.
    • Blood Lead Levels in Captive Giant Pandas

      Wintle, Nathan J. P.; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S.; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hemin (2018)
      Fifteen giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Chinese Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Bifengxia, Sichuan, China were analyzed for blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) during the 2017 breeding season. Thirteen of the 15 bears showed Pb-B below the method detection limit (MDL) of 3.3 µg/dL....
    • Body size, not phylogenetic relationship or residency, drives interspecific dominance in a little pocket mouse community

      Chock, Rachel Y.; Shier, Debra M.; Grether, Gregory F. (2018)
      The role of interspecific aggression in structuring ecological communities can be important to consider when reintroducing endangered species to areas of their historic range that are occupied by competitors. We sought to determine which species is the most serious interference competitor of the endangered Pacific pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris pacificus, and more generally, whether interspecific aggression in rodents is predicted by body size, residency status or phylogenetic relatedness....
    • Bonobo personality traits are heritable and associated with vasopressin receptor gene 1a variation

      Staes, Nicky; Weiss, Alexander; Helsen, Philippe; Korody, Marisa L.; Eens, Marcel; Stevens, Jeroen M. G. (2016)
      Despite being closely related, bonobos and chimpanzees show remarkable behavioral differences, the proximate origins of which remain unknown. This study examined the link between behavioral variation and variation in the vasopressin 1a receptor gene (Avpr1a) in bonobos. Chimpanzees are polymorphic for a ~360bp deletion (DupB), which includes a microsatellite (RS3) in the 5′ promoter region of Avpr1a. In chimpanzees, the DupB deletion has been linked to lower sociability, lower social sensitivity, and higher anxiety. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ on these traits, leading some to believe that the absence of the DupB deletion in bonobos may be partly responsible for these differences, and to the prediction that similar associations between Avpr1a genotypes and personality traits should be present in bonobos. We identified bonobo personality dimensions using behavioral measures (SociabilityB, BoldnessB, OpennessB, ActivityB) and trait ratings (AssertivenessR, ConscientiousnessR, OpennessR, AgreeablenessR, AttentivenessR, ExtraversionR). In the present study we found that all 10 dimensions have nonzero heritabilities, indicating there is a genetic basis to personality, and that bonobos homozygous for shorter RS3 alleles were lower in AttentivenessR and higher in OpennessB. These results suggest that variations in Avpr1a genotypes explain both within and between species differences in personality traits of bonobos and chimpanzees.
    • Bovidae, Antilocapridae, Giraffidae, Tragulidae, Hippopotamidae

      Jones, Megan E. B.; Gasper, D.J.; Mitchell, E.; Terio, Karen A.; McAloose, Denise; St. Leger, Judy (Academic PressSan Diego, CA, 2018)
    • Brachylophus gau. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Fisher, R.; Hathaway, S.; Gray, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      Gau Banded Iguanas are known to occur only on Gau Island, Fiji, and have an estimated extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of 220 km2 . Over 50% of the natural habitat of Gau has been degraded or converted due to illegal forest burning practices and free-roaming domestic goat competitors. The iguana population is suspected to have declined correspondingly during the last 30–45 years (three generations). There is continuing predation pressure on iguanas from invasive alien rats, feral cats, and free-roaming domestic pigs. Without conservation intervention, habitat degradation observed during the last 20 years is projected to cause a further 10–20% decline over the next 10–15 years.
    • Building conservation capacity in Southeast Asia: Outcomes of the ATBC 2015 Asia-Pacific Chapter meeting conservation education symposium

      Souter, Nicholas J.; Hughes, Alice C.; Savini, Tommaso; Rao, Madhu; Goodale, Eben; Nice, Amy Van; Huang, Natalia; Liu, Jing-Xin; Hunt, Matt P.; O'Connor, David; et al. (2017)
      The “Building Capacity for Conservation in Southeast Asia” symposium was held at the 2015 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Asia-Pacific Chapter meeting. The range of programs discussed fell into three categories: career development, project-specific activities and outreach, and delivering conservation information to diverse audiences....
    • Cache pilfering in a granivore guild: Implications for reintroduction management

      Chock, Rachel Y.; Grether, Gregory F.; Shier, Debra M. (2019)
      Reintroduction programs that release endangered species back into areas from which they have been extirpated rarely take competitive interactions between species into account....
    • California condor recovery: a work in progress

      Wallace, Michael P.; Lamont, Miles M. (Hancock House PublishersToronto, Ontario, Canada. Surrey, BC, Canada., 2014)
    • California condors and DDT: Examining the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in a critically endangered species

      Tubbs, Christopher W. (2016)
      In 1987, the last free-flying California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) was captured and brought into captivity, rendering the species extinct in the wild. At the time, only 27 condors remained. Today, the population numbers approximately 430 individuals and though condors continue their remarkable recovery, they still face numerous challenges. One challenge, specific to condors inhabiting coastal regions, is exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) p,p'-DDE, through the scavenging of marine mammal carcasses. The exposure levels these birds currently experience appears to be causing eggshell thinning, reminiscent of the phenomenon that nearly collapsed populations of several avian species decades ago. We were interested in further exploring the potential effects of EDCs on California condors. Investigating EDC effects on a critically endangered species like the condor can be difficult, with limited options for studies that can be feasibly conducted. Therefore, we conducted non-invasive, in vitro estrogen receptor (ESR) activation assays to characterize activation by EDCs that coastal condors encounter. Here, I give a brief history of EDCs effects on birds, and in particular the California condor. Additionally, our ESR data are summarized and mechanisms of eggshell thinning are reviewed, highlighting the potential implications of EDC exposure on the continued recovery of the California condor.
    • Captive breeding and re-introductions of the Monuriki Island Crested Iguana in Fiji

      Chand, R; Niukula, J; Vadada, J; Fisher, R; Lovich, Kim; Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Rasalato, S; Thaman, B; Seniloli, E; Tuamoto, T; et al. (IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group and Abu Dhabi, UAE: Environment Agency-Abu DhabiGland, Gland, Switzerland, 2016)
      The Fijian crested iguana (Brachylophus vitiensis) is an arboreal, herbivorous lizard found on only a small number of islands with native dry or littoral forest in western Fiji. Its population is secure only on the sanctuary island of Yadua Taba, where >12,000 individuals exist; this equates to over 200 individuals/ha in the best forest habitat. All other island populations appear to be low and declining (mostly <100 individuals), and survive on communally owned land which is mostly outside the control of central government legislation (Harlow et al., 2007)....
    • Capturing pests and releasing ecosystem engineers: translocation of common but diminished species to re-establish ecological roles

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Montagne, J.P.; Lenihan, C. M.; Wisinski, Colleen L.; Nordstrom, Lisa A.; Shier, Debra M. (2019)
      Translocation of abundant but declining ecologically important species for re-establishing more sustainable ecosystem function is a neglected but promising form of conservation intervention. Here, we developed a translocation program in which we capture pests and release ecosystem engineers, by relocating California ground squirrels Otospermophilus beecheyi from areas where they are unwanted to conserved lands where they can perform ecosystem services such as burrowing and vegetation alteration. We accomplished this using an experimental approach in which some factors were measured or experimentally manipulated, while others were held constant. We translocated 707 squirrels and examined survival and movement patterns as a function of several translocation tactics and ecological factors. We released squirrels at 9 different plots with varying ecological contexts and at each plot experimentally manipulated post-release habitat using mowing, mowing plus the use of augers to establish starter burrows, and controls that remained unmanipulated. The most influential variables affecting short-term survival, dispersal, and long-term persistence were factors relating to soils and vegetation structure. Translocated squirrels had higher initial survival on plots where dense exotic grasses were experimentally altered, greater dispersal when released at sites with less friable clay soils, and improved long-term persistence at sites characterized by more friable soils associated with metavolcanic than alluvial geological layers. Squirrel persistence was also improved when translocations supplemented previous translocation sites than during initial translocations to sites containing no resident squirrels. Our results demonstrate how California ground squirrels can be successfully translocated as part of a larger objective to favorably alter ecological function in novel grassland ecosystems dominated by non-native vegetation. In broader context, our study highlights the importance of testing release strategies, and examining habitat variables and restoration techniques more closely when selecting release sites to improve translocation outcomes.
    • Case series: clinical salmonellosis in four black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) calves

      Love, David; Madrigal, Rodolfo; Cerveny, Shannon; Raines, Janis; Rideout, Bruce; Lung, Nancy P. (2017)
      Although Salmonella spp. infection has been identified in captive and free-ranging rhinoceros, clinical cases in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) calves have not been described. This case series describes clinical salmonellosis in four black rhinoceros calves....
    • Cathemeral

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Donati, Giuseppe; Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (Springer NatureNew York, 2019)
      Within this encyclopedia article, we provide an overview of the term “Cathemeral”. This is applied to the pattern of an organism’s activity that occurs during both the light and dark portions of the 24-h cycle....