• Male European badger churrs: Insights into call function and motivational basis

      Charlton, Benjamin D.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Buesching, Christina D. (2020)
      Determining the contexts of emission and information content of vocal signals can yield insights into the function of different call types, and remains an important step towards understanding the diversification of mammalian vocal repertoires. In this study, we used infra-red video cameras and remote audio recorders to document seasonal and contextual variation in male European badger (Meles meles) churr production over a 24-month period, and acoustic analysis based on source-filter theory to examine whether churr acoustic structure varies according to the caller’s arousal state and identity….
    • Male-male affiliation and cooperation characterize the social behavior of the large-bodied pitheciids, Chiropotes and Cacajao: A review

      Gregory, Tremaine; Bowler, Mark (2016)
      …In this review of recent studies of male-male social interactions in Chiropotes and Cacajao, we posit that the ability to maintain large groups in these genera may be related to the affiliative and perhaps coalitionary relationships between males, who may or may not be related. Affiliative male-male relationships may allow for monopolization of groups of females and facilitate group cohesion by reducing intragroup aggression; however data on male-male interactions with identified individuals will be required to determine patterns of affiliation, while genetic studies may be the most practical way of determining dispersal patterns for these genera….
    • Mapping open space in an old-growth, secondary-growth, and selectively-logged tropical rainforest using discrete return LIDAR

      Jung, Jinha; Pekin, Burak K.; Pijanowski, Bryan C. (2013)
      Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is a valuable tool for mapping vegetation structure in dense forests. Although several LIDAR-derived metrics have been proposed for characterizing vertical forest structure in previous studies, none of these metrics explicitly measure open space, or vertical gaps, under a forest canopy. We develop new LIDAR metrics that characterize vertical gaps within a forest for use in forestry and forest management applications....
    • Mapping the ecological footprint of large livestock overlapping with wildlife in Kenyan pastoralist landscapes

      O'Connor, David; Butt, Bilal; Foufopoulos, Johannes B. (2016)
      ...This study examines the efficacy using GPS collars to measure the spatial ecology and browsing orbits of camels in a pastoralist setting (primarily cattle and camels) as a means to measure overlap with wildlife....
    • Mass loss rates of fasting polar bears

      Pilfold, Nicholas W.; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Richardson, Evan (2016)
      Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased....
    • Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps: Composition, structure and implications for conservation and management

      Endress, Bryan A.; Horn, Christa M.; Gilmore, Michael P. (2013)
      Swamp forests dominated by the dioecious palm, Mauritia flexuosa, cover vast areas of the Amazon Basin and are poorly studied despite their recognized ecological and economic importance. This knowledge gap confounds current conservation and management efforts. In this study, we documented overstory structure and composition of M. flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) as part of a broader effort to understand their ecology and assist in developing best practices for multi-use management for the Maijuna, an indigenous group in Loreto, Peru.…
    • Measuring behavior change in Bangladesh

      LaCombe, Corrin; Danoff-Burg, James A. (2013)
      Behavioral change via environmental education is a fundamental cornerstone of conservation (Jacobson and McDuff, 1998) as the majority of environmental threats are the result of human activities. Changes in human behavior can be challenging to accurately capture and measure. Using a case study from Bangladesh, we share an example of one way that behavioral change (reduction in littering) was successfully measured as part of a larger hoolock gibbon-focused conservation education program.
    • Migratory response of polar bears to sea ice loss: to swim or not to swim

      Pilfold, Nicholas W.; McCall, Alysa; Derocher, Andrew E.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Richardson, Evan (2017)
      Migratory responses to climate change may vary across and within populations, particularly for species with large geographic ranges. An increase in the frequency of long-distance swims (> 50 km) is one predicted consequence of climate change for polar bears Ursus maritimus....
    • Mitigation-driven translocations: are we moving wildlife in the right direction?

      Germano, Jennifer M.; Field, Kimberleigh J; Griffiths, Richard A; Clulow, Simon; Foster, Jim; Harding, Gemma; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2015)
      Despite rapid growth in the field of reintroduction biology, results from scientific research are often not applied to translocations initiated when human land‐use change conflicts with the continued persistence of a species' population at a particular site....
    • Molecular epidemiology of Trypanosomatids and Trypanosoma cruzi in primates from Peru

      Aysanoa, Esar; Mayor, Pedro; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Zariquiey, Carlos M.; Morales, E. Angelo; Pérez, Jocelyn G.; Bowler, Mark; Ventocilla, Julio A.; González, Carlos; Baldeviano, G. Christian; et al. (2017)
      We determined the prevalence rate and risk of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi and other trypanosomatids in Peruvian non-human primates (NHPs) in the wild (n = 126) and in different captive conditions (n = 183). Blood samples were collected on filter paper, FTA cards, or EDTA tubes and tested using a nested PCR protocol targeting the 24S? rRNA gene....
    • Molecular methods to detect Mycoplasma spp. and testudinid herpesvirus 2 in desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and implications for disease management

      Braun, Josephine; Schrenzel, Mark D.; Witte, Carmel L.; Gokool, Larisa; Burchell, Jennifer; Rideout, Bruce (2014)
      Mycoplasmas are an important cause of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and have been a main focus in attempts to mitigate disease-based population declines. Infection risk can vary with an animal's population of origin, making screening tests popular tools for determining infection status in individuals and populations…. Our findings suggest that mycoplasmas are not the only agents of concern and that a single M. agassizii ELISA or nasal flush qPCR alone failed to identify all potentially infected animals in a population….
    • Molecular phylogeny and chromosomal evolution of Alcelaphini (Antilopinae)

      Steiner, Cynthia C.; Charter, Suellen J.; Houck, Marlys L.; Ryder, Oliver A. (2014)
      Robertsonian (Rb) translocations, in particular centric fusions, are thought to play a primary role in evolution and speciation of the Bovidae family....This work studies chromosome variation in 72 captive individuals of 6 species of Alcelaphini (Antilopinae): The hartebeest (genus Alcelaphus), hirola (Beatragus), black and blue wildebeests (Connochaetes), and the topi and bontebok (Damaliscus)….
    • Molecular variation and population structure in critically endangered Turks and Caicos Rock Iguanas: identifying intraspecific conservation units and revising subspecific taxonomy

      Welch, Mark E.; Colosimo, Giuliano; Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Malone, Catherine L.; Hilton, Jace; Long, June; Getz, Angela H.; Alberts, Allison C.; Gerber, Glenn P. (2017)
      For species living in naturally fragmented habitats, the identification of conservation units is particularly challenging. Turks and Caicos Rock Iguanas, Cyclura carinata, are endemic to the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI)....
    • Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Razafindramanana, J.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Rakotondrabe, R.; Roullet, D.; Irwin, M; King, T. (2020)
      There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to 80% in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 8 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area (through deforestation), extent and quality of habitat (selective logging), and exploitation through unsustainable levels of hunting. Furthermore, Eulemur mongoz has undergone hybridization with E. rufus in Western Betsiboka. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.
    • Montane bias in lowland Amazonian peatlands: Plant assembly on heterogeneous landscapes and potential significance to palynological inference

      Householder, J. E.; Wittmann, F.; Tobler, Mathias W.; Janovec, J. P. (2015)
      Past temperature changes in tropical mountain regions are commonly inferred from vertical elevational shifts of montane indicator taxa in the palynological record.…To the extent that fossilization provides a better record of past vegetation that occurred proximate to the site of deposition, we suggest that habitat tracking of montane elements may introduce a cool bias in lowland paleo-temperature reconstructions based on pollen proxies.
    • Moore's woolly lemur (Avahi mooreorum). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Borgerson, C.; Sawyer, R.M.; Fenosoa, Z.S.E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species is 2,544 km2 . This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also suspected to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered
    • Morphology of the oxyurid nematodes Trypanoxyuris (T.) cacajao n. sp. and T. (T.) ucayalii n. sp. from the red uakari monkey Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon

      Conga, D. F.; Giese, E. G.; Serra-Freire, N. M.; Bowler, Mark; Mayor, P. (2016)
      Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Thomas, 1928) (Primates: Pitheciidae), a subspecies endemic to the Peruvian Amazon, occurs in patchy and sometimes isolated populations in north-eastern Peru and is in a vulnerable situation, mainly due to habitat loss and hunting. This rareness and remote distribution means that, until now, parasitical studies have been limited. Based on optical and scanning electron microscopy of specimens of both sexes, we report two new species of Trypanoxyuris pinworms occurring in the large intestine of the Peruvian red uakari, namely Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) cacajao and Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) ucayalii. ...
    • Morphometrics and structure of complete baleen racks in gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) From the eastern North Pacific ocean

      Young, Samantha; DeméRé, Thomas A.; Ekdale, Eric G.; Berta, Annalisa; Zellmer, Nicholas (2015)
      …In one of the first morphometric studies of the full baleen apparatus, we describe the morphology of complete baleen racks in neonate, yearling and adult gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus), and note morphometric variations between age groups as well as within individual racks… Histological examination of the epithelial base (Zwischensubstanz) and laminae showed basic epidermal layers, as well as gapping between layers and vacuoles
    • Movement patterns of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in farmlands in Botswana

      Van der Weyde, Leanne K.; Hubel, T. Y.; Horgan, J.; Shotton, J.; McKenna, R.; Wilson, A. M. (2017)
      Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas which occasionally results in human-wildlife conflict. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method. Cheetahs had medium-sized home ranges compared to previously studied cheetah in similar farming environments. Results showed that cheetahs actively visited scent marking trees and avoided visiting homesteads. A slight preference for visiting game farms over cattle farms was found, but there was no difference in duration of visits between farm types. We conclude that cheetahs selected for areas that are important for their dietary and social needs and prefer to avoid human-occupied areas. Improved knowledge of how cheetahs use farmlands can allow farmers to make informed decisions when developing management practices and can be an important tool for reducing human-wildlife conflict.
    • Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation

      Tracey, Jeff A.; Sheppard, James; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fuwen; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Fisher, Robert N.; Sueur, Cédric; Sueur, Cédric (2014)
      Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species – giant panda, dugong, and California condor – to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research.