• Qualitative impact evaluation of a social marketing campaign for conservation

      Salazar, Gabby; Mills, Morena; Veríssimo, Diogo (2019)
      Social marketing campaigns use marketing techniques to influence human behavior for the greater social good. In the conservation sector, social marketing campaigns have been used to influence behavior for the benefit of biodiversity as well as society....
    • Quantifying the scale and socioeconomic drivers of bird hunting in Central African forest communities

      Whytock, Robin C.; Morgan, Bethan J.; Awa, Taku; Bekokon, Zacharie; Abwe, Ekwoge A.; Buij, Ralph; Virani, Munir; Vickery, Juliet A.; Bunnefeld, Nils (2018)
    • Quantity does not always mean quality: The importance of qualitative social science in conservation research

      Rust, Niki A.; Abrams, Amber; Challender, Daniel W. S.; Chapron, Guillaume; Ghoddousi, Arash; Glikman, Jenny A.; Gowan, Catherine H.; Hughes, Courtney; Rastogi, Archi; Said, Alicia; et al. (2017)
      Qualitative methods are important to gain a deep understanding of complex problems and poorly researched areas. They can be particularly useful to help explain underlying conservation problems....
    • Ramantsoavanaa's southern woolly lemur (Avahi ramanantsoavani). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Andriamisedra, T.R; Ranaivoarisoa, F.N.; Peterson, C.R.; Ratsimbazafy, J.; Louis, E.E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence of this species covers approximately 14,376 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also thought to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
    • Rapid response to evaluate the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and ranavirus in wild amphibian populations in Madagascar

      Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F. (2015)
      We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease. Standardized population monitoring of key amphibian and reptile species should be established with urgency to enable early detection of potential impacts of disease emergence in this global biodiversity hotspot.
    • Rare plant reintroduction and other conservation translocations: Introduction

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      The ultimate goal of rare plant conservation is to ensure that unique taxa experience continued evolution within a natural context. The science of reintroduction is rapidly evolving.
    • Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse

      Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; et al. (2013)
      …We estimate that the Przewalski’s and domestic horse populations diverged 38–72 kyr bp, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski’s horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski’s horses represent the last surviving wild horse population….
    • Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse

      Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; et al. (2013)
      Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560–780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski’s horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus)....
    • Recommended guiding principles for reporting on camera trapping research

      Meek, P. D.; Ballard, G.; Claridge, A.; Kays, R.; Moseby, K.; O’Brien, T.; O’Connell, A.; Sanderson, J.; Swann, D. E.; Tobler, Mathias W.; et al. (2014)
      …Here we propose a series of guiding principles for reporting methods and results obtained using camera traps. Attributes of camera trapping we cover include: (i) specifying the model(s) of camera traps(s) used, (ii) mode of deployment, (iii) camera settings, and (iv) study design….
    • Reconsidering habitat associations in the Anthropocene

      Hennessy, Sarah McCullough; Marczak, Susanne A.; Nordstrom, Lisa A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2018)
      The California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi) is generally undervalued despite serving as an ecosystem engineer in grassland ecosystems. Evidence of significant engineering effects by squirrels indicates that population reductions have cascading effects on other species, including several conservation-dependent species. While the theory and practices behind habitat association studies are already well established, our application of this approach helped identify priority management options in degraded grasslands expected to change further under shifts in climate. In this study we conducted surveys for California ground squirrels throughout San Diego County grasslands and examined habitat covariates to determine the ecological variables currently associated with occurrence. The primary objectives were to 1) improve our understanding of the habitat variables associated with squirrel presence, and 2) develop a predictive model for squirrel habitat suitability at a local scale. The most predictive models included significant main effects for percent sand (as a component of soil texture) and vegetation cover. A 10% increase in vegetation cover was associated with 1.3 fold lower odds of squirrel presence, whereas a 10% increase in percent sand was associated with 2.0 times higher odds of squirrel presence. Comparison of the predictive accuracy of soil texture data at two scales (fine-scale field vs. landscape scale GIS layers) showed fine-scale field sampling has greater predictive strength. Because soil type is a logistically non-malleable factor for wildlife managers, it is important to categorize management sites by soil type to identify the potential for promoting fossorial species on the landscape. With the prospect of shifting landscape ecotones due to climate change, it is as important to understand the basic habitat requirements of keystone species as for rare species.
    • Reconsidering the use of soy and alfalfa in southern white rhinoceros diets

      Tubbs, Christopher W.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Milnes, Mathew R. (2017)
      The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR) population is not currently self-sustaining due to the reproductive failure of captive-born females. Our research into this phenomenon points to chemicals produced by plants common to captive diets, such as soy and alfalfa, as possible causes...
    • Recursive movement patterns: Review and synthesis across species

      Berger-Tal, Oded; Bar-David, Shirli (2015)
      Recursive movement—returns to previously visited areas—is a widespread phenomenon exhibited by a large range of species from bees and birds to primates and large felines, at different spatial scales. Nevertheless, the wide scope and generality of this phenomenon remain underestimated by the scientific community. This limited appreciation for the pervasiveness of recursive movement can be attributed to its study by parallel lines of research, with different methodologies and nomenclature, and almost no cross referencing among them. Among these lines of studies are traplining behavior in foraging ecology, path recursions in movement ecology and the ecology of fear in predator–prey studies. We synthesize these three lines of research, to underline the mechanisms driving these patterns and create a conceptual model for recursive movement behavior across species and spatio-temporal scales. The emergence and complexity of recursive movement patterns are determined by the rate of resource recovery, environmental heterogeneity, the predictability of resource recovery, and the animal's cognitive capabilities. Our synthesis can be used to generate predictions within and among systems, as well as to promote the sharing of knowledge and methodologies gained in each sub-field. Such sharing can greatly advance our understanding of behavioral and ecological processes and provide novel opportunities for future research.
    • Red brown lemur (Eulemur rufus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Razafindramanana, J.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Rakotondrabe, R.; Rakotoarisoa, A.A.; Ravaloharimanitra, M.; King, T. (2020)
      There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to 30% in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 8 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, and exploitation through unsustainable levels of hunting. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
    • Red light improves spermatozoa motility and does not induce oxidative DNA damage

      Preece, Daryl; Chow, Kay W.; Gomez-Godinez, Veronica; Gustafson, Kyle; Esener, Selin; Ravida, Nicole; Durrant, Barbara S.; Berns, Michael W. (2017)
      The ability to successfully fertilize ova relies upon the swimming ability of spermatozoa. Both in humans and in animals, sperm motility has been used as a metric for the viability of semen samples. Recently, several studies have examined the efficacy of low dosage red light exposure for cellular repair and increasing sperm motility. Of prime importance to the practical application of this technique is the absence of DNA damage caused by radiation exposure. In this study, we examine the effect of 633 nm coherent, red laser light on sperm motility using a novel wavelet-based algorithm that allows for direct measurement of curvilinear velocity under red light illumination. This new algorithm gives results comparable to the standard computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. We then assess the safety of red light treatment of sperm by analyzing, (1) the levels of double-strand breaks in the DNA, and (2) oxidative damage in the sperm DNA. The results demonstrate that for the parameters used there are insignificant differences in oxidative DNA damage as a result of irradiation.
    • Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Borgerson, C.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Johnson, S; Louis, E.E.; Razafindramanana, J. (2020)
      A population reduction ofgreater than or equal to 80% is suspected to be met over three generations (24 years, assuming a generation length of 8 years). This is based on a continuing decline of the population, due to unsustainable hunting pressure and a reduction in the extent and quality of habitat from subsistence and cash-crop agriculture, illegal logging for precious timber, and frequent cyclones. Based on suspected and inferred decline, measured direct and indirect threats, and its narrow niche dimensions, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.
    • Rediscovery of the horseshoe shrimp Lightiella serendipita Jones, 1961 (Cephalocarida: Hutchinsoniellidae) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, with a key to the worldwide species of Cephalocarida

      Garcia, Crystal; Woo, Isa; Rogers, D. Christopher; Flanagan, Alison M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.
      Lightiella serendipitaJones, 1961 was first discovered in San Francisco Bay, California in 1953, but it had not been observed since 1988. In 2017, a total of 13 adult L. serendipita specimens were found as part of a study in central San Francisco Bay, nearly doubling the total number of specimens ever collected. We measured vertical distribution of macroinvertebrates and environmental variables, including grain size and chemical composition of sediment samples, to evaluate potential features associated with the habitat of the species. Specimens were generally found in sediments with low organic matter (1.7–3%), high sulfate concentrations (594.6–647 ppm SO4), fine grain size (12.8–36.2% sand, 35.6–58% silt, 22.8–37.6% clay) and were mostly found in deep core sections (4–10 cm). Specimens were also consistently observed in cores containing tube-forming Polychaeta (i.e., Sabaco elongatus (Verrill, 1873) and Capitellidae), suggesting L. serendipita may have a commensal relationship with sedentary polychaetes, as do other cephalocaridans such as Lightiella incisaGooding, 1963. We provide a scanning electron micrograph of L. serendipita and the first complete key to the species in class Cephalocarida to help elucidate the taxonomy of this rare crustacean taxon. The perceived absence of L. serendipita in previous surveys of the Bay may be attributable to its rarity; however, additional research is needed to fully understand habitat requirements and population size of this unique endemic species.
    • Reducing human impacts on Andean bears in NW Peru through community-based conservation

      Young, Samantha; Van Horn, Russell C.; Glikman, Jenny A.; Nevin, Owen; Convery, Ian; Davis, Peter (Boydell & BrewerNewcastle, UK, 2019)
      Andean bears live throughout the tropical Andes in a large latitudinal and elevational gradient across diverse habitats. They are threatened throughout their range by habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and hunting, and in many places they overlap with human settlements and agricultural fields, creating competition or conflict for resources....
    • Refining reproductive parameters for modelling sustainability and extinction in hunted primate populations in the Amazon

      Bowler, Mark; Anderson, Matthew J.; Montes, Daniel; Pérez, Pedro; Mayor, Pedro; Fenton, Brock; Fenton, Brock (2014)
      Primates are frequently hunted in Amazonia. Assessing the sustainability of hunting is essential to conservation planning. The most-used sustainability model, the ‘Production Model’, and more recent spatial models, rely on basic reproductive parameters for accuracy. These parameters are often crudely estimated. To date, parameters used for the Amazon’s most-hunted primate, the woolly monkey (Lagothrix spp.), come from captive populations in the 1960s, when captive births were rare. Furthermore, woolly monkeys have since been split into five species. We provide reproductive parameters calculated by examining the reproductive organs of female Poeppig’s woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii), collected by hunters as part of their normal subsistence activity. Production was 0.48–0.54 young per female per year, and an interbirth interval of 22.3 to 25.2 months, similar to parameters from captive populations. However, breeding was seasonal, which imposes limits on the maximum reproductive rate attainable. We recommend the use of spatial models over the Production Model, since they are less sensitive to error in estimated reproductive rates. Further refinements to reproductive parameters are needed for most primate taxa. Methods like ours verify the suitability of captive reproductive rates for sustainability analysis and population modelling for populations under differing conditions of hunting pressure and seasonality. Without such research, population modelling is based largely on guesswork.
    • Regulation of endocrine systems by the microbiome: Perspectives from comparative animal models

      Williams, Candace L.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Tubbs, Christopher W.; Bisesi, Joseph H. (2020)
      The microbiome regulates endocrine systems and influences many aspects of hormone signaling. Using examples from different animal taxa, we highlight the state of the science in microbiome research as it relates to endocrinology and endocrine disruption research....
    • Relationship between behavioural diversity and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites: a case study with cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

      Miller, Lance J.; Pisacane, CB; Vicino, Greg A. (2016)
      ... The goal of the current study was to continue efforts to validate behavioural diversity as an indicator of welfare using cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) as a model species. Behavioural and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite data were collected on 18 cheetah at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park over a period of three months to explore the relationship between behavioural diversity and adrenal hormones related to the stress response.....