• Conservation genomics of threatened animal species

      Steiner, Cynthia C.; Putnam, Andrea S.; Hoeck, Paquita E. A.; Ryder, Oliver A. (2013)
      The genomics era has opened up exciting possibilities in the field of conservation biology by enabling genomic analyses of threatened species that previously were limited to model organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the collection of genome-wide data allow for more robust studies of the demographic history of populations and adaptive variation associated with fitness and local adaptation.…
    • Conservation marketing as a tool to promote human-wildlife coexistence

      Veríssimo, Diogo; Tully, Brooke; Douglas, Leo R.; Frank, Beatrice; Glikman, Jenny A.; Marchini, Silvio (Cambridge University Press, 2019)
    • Conservation translocations: a review of common difficulties and promising directions

      Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, D. T.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2020)
      Translocations are a common conservation and management strategy, but despite their popularity, translocations are a high-cost endeavor with a history of failures. It is therefore imperative to maximize their success by learning from our collective experience....
    • Conserving San Diego’s endemic geophytes

      Davitt, Joe (2017)
      The Mediterranean climate and diverse habitats that typify San Diego County have resulted in both the highest number of plant taxa found in any county in the United States, and plants with adaptations that make species assessment challenging. Geophytes are perennial plants with underground storage structures such as bulbs, corms, and rhizomes, which are particularly common in Mediterranean climates. With the goal of capturing the breadth of a species’ genetic diversity in the seed bank, we must assess a species population size across its entire range. Yet the ability of geophytes to remain dormant underground for prolonged periods of time make their assessment very difficult. The problem is further exacerbated by drought and the inherent unpredictability of future weather as a result of climate change. Because of this we must monitor and make seed collections from rare geophyte populations across many different years and under different climatic conditions.
    • Conserving the Ebo gorillas through community collaboration

      Mfossa, Daniel; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Morgan, Bethan J. (2017)
    • Consumer demand and traditional medicine prescription of bear products in Vietnam

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Glikman, Jenny A.; Crudge, Brian; Dang, Vinh; Willemsen, Madelon; Nguyen, Trang; O'Connor, David; Bendixsen, Tuan (2019)
      The illegal trade in wildlife products is a major driver of the global biodiversity crisis. Trade in wildlife products is driven by consumer demand; however, consumer's motivations are often poorly understood....
    • Contextual influences on animal decision-making: Significance for behavior-based wildlife conservation and management

      Owen, Megan A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Blumstein, Daniel T. (2017)
      Survival and successful reproduction require animals to make critical decisions amidst a naturally dynamic environmental and social background (i.e. “context”). However, human activities have pervasively, and rapidly, extended contextual variation into evolutionarily novel territory, potentially rendering evolved animal decision-making mechanisms and strategies maladaptive. We suggest that explicitly focusing on animal decision-making (ADM), by integrating and applying findings from studies of sensory ecology, cognitive psychology, behavioral economics and eco-evolutionary strategies, may enhance our understanding of, and our ability to predict how, human-driven changes in the environment and population demography will influence animal populations. Fundamentally, the decisions animals make involve evolved mechanisms, and behaviors emerge from the combined action of sensory integration, cognitive mechanisms and strategic rules of thumb, and any of these processes may have a disproportionate influence on behavior. Although there is extensive literature exploring ADM, it generally reflects a canalized, discipline-specific approach that lacks a unified conceptual framework. As a result, there has been limited application of ADM theory and research findings into predictive models that can enhance management outcomes, even though it is likely that the relative resilience of species to rapid environmental change is fundamentally a result of how ADM is linked to contextual variation. Here, we focus on how context influences ADM, and highlight ideas and results that may be most applicable to conservation biology.
    • Contrasting evolutionary history, anthropogenic declines and genetic contact in the northern and southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)

      Moodley, Yoshan; Russo, Isa-Rita M.; Robovský, Jan; Dalton, Desiré L.; Kotzé, Antoinette; Smith, Steve; Stejskal, Jan; Ryder, Oliver A.; Hermes, Robert; Walzer, Chris; et al. (2018)
      The white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) has a discontinuous African distribution, which is limited by the extent of sub-Saharan grasslands. The southern population (SWR) declined to its lowest number around the turn of the nineteenth century, but recovered to become the world's most numerous rhinoceros....
    • Contrasting genomic shifts underlie parallel phenotypic evolution in response to fishing

      Therkildsen, Nina O.; Wilder, Aryn P.; Conover, David O.; Munch, Stephan B.; Baumann, Hannes; Palumbi, Stephen R. (2019)
      Parallel and idiosyncratic fish adaptation Fish populations respond rapidly to fishing pressure. Within a handful of generations, marked phenotypic change can occur—often to smaller body sizes, because it is the big fish that are usually extracted....
    • Contrasting patterns of movement across life stages in an insular iguana population

      Moss, Jeanette B.; Gerber, Glenn P.; Goetz, Matthias; Haakonsson, Jane E.; Harvey, Jessica C.; Laaser, Tanja; Welch, Mark E. (2020)
    • Conventional seed banking to support species survival in the wild: Introduction

      Walters, Christina; Maschinski, Joyce; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      One in five plant species are at risk of extinction worldwide. Growing concerns for the loss of plant genetic diversity and species’ extinctions, as well as advancing knowhow to make successful conservation collections, motivates CPC Network scientists to collect seeds from wild populations and bank them. The great diversity of plants throughout the world helps define our sense of place and our cultural heritage....
    • Coupling gene-based and classic veterinary diagnostics improves interpretation of health and immune function in the Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

      Drake, K. Kristina; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lewison, Rebecca L.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Braun, Josephine; Waters, Shannon C.; Miles, A. Keith (2017)
      The analysis of blood constituents is a widely used tool to aid in monitoring of animal health and disease. However, classic blood diagnostics (i.e. hematologic and plasma biochemical values) often do not provide sufficient information to determine the state of an animal’s health. Field studies on wild tortoises and other reptiles have had limited success in drawing significant inferences between blood diagnostics and physiological and immunological condition. However, recent research using gene transcription profiling in the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) has proved useful in identifying immune or physiologic responses and overall health. To improve our understanding of health and immune function in tortoises, we evaluated both standard blood diagnostic (body condition, hematologic, plasma biochemistry values, trace elements, plasma proteins, vitamin A levels) and gene transcription profiles in 21 adult tortoises (11 clinically abnormal; 10 clinically normal) from Clark County, NV, USA. Necropsy and histology evaluations from clinically abnormal tortoises revealed multiple physiological complications, with moderate to severe rhinitis or pneumonia being the primary cause of morbidity in all but one of the examined animals. Clinically abnormal tortoises had increased transcription for four genes (SOD, MyD88, CL and Lep), increased lymphocyte production, biochemical enzymes and organics, trace elements of copper, and decreased numbers of leukocytes. We found significant positive correlations between increased transcription for SOD and increased trace elements for copper, as well as genes MyD88 and Lep with increased inflammation and microbial insults. Improved methods for health assessments are an important element of monitoring tortoise population recovery and can support the development of more robust diagnostic measures for ill animals, or individuals directly impacted by disturbance.
    • Coupling gene-based and classic veterinary diagnostics improves interpretation of health and immune function in the Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

      Drake, K. Kristina; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lewison, Rebecca L.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Braun, Josephine; Waters, Shannon C.; Miles, A. Keith (2017)
      The analysis of blood constituents is a widely used tool to aid in monitoring of animal health and disease. However, classic blood diagnostics (i.e. hematologic and plasma biochemical values) often do not provide sufficient information to determine the state of an animal’s health. Field studies on wild tortoises and other reptiles have had limited success in drawing significant inferences between blood diagnostics and physiological and immunological condition. However, recent research using gene transcription profiling in the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) has proved useful in identifying immune or physiologic responses and overall health. To improve our understanding of health and immune function in tortoises, we evaluated both standard blood diagnostic (body condition, hematologic, plasma biochemistry values, trace elements, plasma proteins, vitamin A levels) and gene transcription profiles in 21 adult tortoises (11 clinically abnormal; 10 clinically normal) from Clark County, NV, USA. Necropsy and histology evaluations from clinically abnormal tortoises revealed multiple physiological complications, with moderate to severe rhinitis or pneumonia being the primary cause of morbidity in all but one of the examined animals. Clinically abnormal tortoises had increased transcription for four genes (SOD, MyD88, CL and Lep), increased lymphocyte production, biochemical enzymes and organics, trace elements of copper, and decreased numbers of leukocytes. We found significant positive correlations between increased transcription for SOD and increased trace elements for copper, as well as genes MyD88 and Lep with increased inflammation and microbial insults. Improved methods for health assessments are an important element of monitoring tortoise population recovery and can support the development of more robust diagnostic measures for ill animals, or individuals directly impacted by disturbance.
    • Crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reuter, K.E; Eppley, Timothy M.; Hending, D; Pacifici, M; Semel, B.; Zaonarivelo, J. (2020)
      A population reduction of greater than or equal to 50% is suspected to be met in the future over a time period of 25 years (three generations based on an 8.4-year generation time, Pacifici et al. 2013). This is based on a continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
    • Crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Razafindramanana, J.; Salmona, J.; King, T.; Roullet, D.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Sgarlata, G.M.; Schwitzer, C. (2020)
      Listed as Critically Endangered as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of greater than or equal to 80% over a period of 30 years (three generations), due primarily to observed continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat from burning of forests to provide pasture for livestock and logging for charcoal production, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. Given the likely continuing population decline, the species has been uplisted to Critically Endangered.
    • Ctenosaura acanthura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Morales-Mávil, J.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Veracruz Spiny-tailed Iguana is widely, but unevenly distributed along the Gulf of México versant, from the state of Tamaulipas in the north, to the edge of Tabasco in the south, México, and Huehuetenango, Guatemala. Within their range, 62% of their habitat has been converted for large- and small-scale agricultural, ranching, oil extraction, and urbanization. It is suspected there has been a decrease in the iguana population correlated with this habitat loss. Although habitat degradation is ongoing, the majority of this loss occurred more than three generations ago. This iguana seems to be distributed among isolated subpopulations, with large concentrations in some areas and rare to absent in others. Data are unavailable on the overall population size or trend. These iguanas occur in mildly human-impacted areas, such as the peripheries of crop/ranchlands and suburban areas; however, they are more vulnerable to predation by free-ranging and feral cats and dogs in these areas. Survival may be limited as a result of this predation pressure. Hunting for human food occurs mostly in the south at a moderate level; quantitative data on the extent of this threat is unknown. The occurrence of these iguanas in the international pet trade is an emerging concern. At the western end of their range, these iguanas hybridize with the central Balsas form of the Guerreran Spinytailed Iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata). Currently, they are considered Least Concern due to their extensive range and large roughly-estimated population size; however, further research on the population size, trends, natural history, and threats is needed.
    • Ctenosaura flavidorsalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Malone, C.L.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Yellow-backed Spiny-tailed Iguana is known from a somewhat large geographic area, however, very little is known about their fine-scale distribution and population size. They are very rare in some localities but believed to be in greater abundance in intact forests. The region’s tropical and subtropical dry forest habitat has been extensively degraded for agriculture, cattle ranching, and urbanization. It is suspected the iguana population has declined in correlation with this habitat loss, however, the exact relationship is unknown and it is likely that most of the reduction occurred more than three generations ago, though habitat destruction is ongoing. These iguanas do not occur in any protected area, have limited legal protection in parts of its range, and suffers from lack of enforcement of existing regulations in others. Iguanas can exist in human-modified areas to some extent, but they are threatened by feral and free-roaming cats and dogs, which is likely to augment natural mortality. The estimated extent of occurrence is 15,952 km2 , meeting the threshold for Vulnerable and it is inferred there must be decline, however, there are not enough data to quantify population size, fragmentation, or the number of locations. The species is therefore assessed as Near Threatened as it almost qualifies for listing as Vulnerable.
    • Ctenosaura hemilopha. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Blázquez, M.C.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Baja California Spiny-tailed Iguana has a wide distribution in the southern portion of the Baja California peninsula, south of Comondú. They seem to be structured in small and restricted subpopulations, with low but evident migration between them. Their extent of occurrence is 35,960 km 2 . They are most common in the southern Los Cabos region and less abundant in the north. Iguanas have not been recently found in several locations with former records. Iguanas are primarily threatened by habitat destruction and predation by free-roaming domestic cats and dogs near semi-urban areas and the periphery of large cities. Populations in the north may experience fluctuations from severe and cyclic droughts. The overall population trend is unknown and estimated to be fewer than 700,000 adults. This species currently qualifies as Least Concern.