• Effect of preservation method on spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) fecal microbiota over 8 weeks

      Hale, Vanessa L.; Tan, Chia L.; Knight, Rob; Amato, Katherine R. (2015)
      …Gut microbes play an important role in human and animal health, and gut microbiome analysis holds great potential for evaluating health in wildlife, as microbiota can be assessed from non-invasively collected fecal samples. However, many common fecal preservation protocols (e.g. freezing at ?80°C) are not suitable for field conditions, or have not been tested for long-term (greater than 2weeks) storage. In this study, we collected fresh fecal samples from captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) at the Columbian Park Zoo (Lafayette, IN, USA)….
    • Effect of widespread agricultural chemical use on butterfly diversity across Turkish provinces

      Pekin, Burak K. (2013)
      …I assessed the effects of a major component of agricultural intensification, agricultural chemical use, and land-cover and climatic variables on butterfly diversity across 81 provinces in Turkey, where agriculture is practiced extensively but with varying degrees of intensity…. Although overall butterfly richness was primarily explained by climatic and land-cover variables, such as the area of natural vegetation cover, threatened butterfly richness and the relative number of threatened butterfly species decreased substantially as the proportion of agricultural households using pesticides increased. These findings suggest that widespread use of agricultural chemicals, or other components of agricultural intensification that may be collinear with pesticide use, pose an imminent threat to the biodiversity of Turkey.…
    • Effectiveness of animal conditioning interventions in reducing human–wildlife conflict: a systematic map protocol

      Snijders, Lysanne; Greggor, Alison L.; Hilderink, Femke; Doran, Carolina (2019)
      Human–wildlife conflict (HWC), is currently one of the most pressing conservation challenges. We restrict ourselves here to wildlife behaviour that is perceived to negatively impact social, economic or cultural aspects of human life or to negatively impact species of conservation concern. HWC often involves wild animals consuming anthropogenic resources, such as crops or livestock, either out of necessity (loss of habitat and natural prey) or as consequence of opportunistic behaviour. A variety of interventions are undertaken to reduce HWC, differing in practicability, costs and social acceptance. One such non-lethal intervention is animal conditioning, a technique to reduce conflict by modifying the behaviour of ‘problem’ animals long-term. Conditioning changes associations animals have with resources or behaviours. Both via ‘punishment’ of unwanted behaviour and ‘rewarding’ of alternative behaviour, researchers aim to make expression of unwanted behaviour relatively less desirable to animals. Despite the potential, however, studies testing conditioning interventions have reported seemingly contradictory outcomes. To facilitate reduction of HWC via conditioning, we thus need to better understand if and when conditioning interventions are indeed effective. With this systematic map we intend to make the global evidence base for conditioning of free-ranging vertebrates more accessible to practitioners, to identify potential evidence clusters and effect modifiers for a subsequent systematic review and to highlight evidence gaps for future research.
    • Effects of artificial light at night on the foraging behavior of an endangered nocturnal mammal

      Shier, Debra M.; Bird, Alicia K.; Wang, Thea B. (2020)
      ...The endangered Stephens’ kangaroo rat (SKR), Dipodomys stephensi, is a nocturnal rodent threatened by habitat destruction from urban expansion. The degree to which ALAN impacts their recovery is unknown....
    • Effects of body size on estimation of mammalian area requirements

      Noonan, Michael J.; Fleming, Christen H.; Tucker, Marlee A.; Kays, Roland; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Abrahms, Briana; Alberts, Susan C.; Ali, Abdullahi H.; Altmann, Jeanne; et al. (2020)
      Accurately quantifying species’ area requirements is a prerequisite for effective area‐based conservation. This typically involves collecting tracking data on species of interest and then conducting home‐range analyses. Problematically, autocorrelation in tracking data can result in space needs being severely underestimated. Based on the previous work, we hypothesized the magnitude of underestimation varies with body mass, a relationship that could have serious conservation implications. To evaluate this hypothesis for terrestrial mammals, we estimated home‐range areas with global positioning system (GPS) locations from 757 individuals across 61 globally distributed mammalian species with body masses ranging from 0.4 to 4000 kg. We then applied block cross‐validation to quantify bias in empirical home‐range estimates. Area requirements of mammals <10 kg were underestimated by a mean approximately15%, and species weighing approximately100 kg were underestimated by approximately50% on average. Thus, we found area estimation was subject to autocorrelation‐induced bias that was worse for large species. Combined with the fact that extinction risk increases as body mass increases, the allometric scaling of bias we observed suggests the most threatened species are also likely to be those with the least accurate home‐range estimates. As a correction, we tested whether data thinning or autocorrelation‐informed home‐range estimation minimized the scaling effect of autocorrelation on area estimates. Data thinning required an approximately93% data loss to achieve statistical independence with 95% confidence and was, therefore, not a viable solution. In contrast, autocorrelation‐informed home‐range estimation resulted in consistently accurate estimates irrespective of mass. When relating body mass to home range size, we detected that correcting for autocorrelation resulted in a scaling exponent significantly >1, meaning the scaling of the relationship changed substantially at the upper end of the mass spectrum.
    • Effects of field conditions on fecal microbiota

      Hale, Vanessa L.; Tan, Chia L.; Niu, Kefeng; Yang, Yeqin; Cui, Duoying; Zhao, Hongxia; Knight, Rob; Amato, Katherine R. (2016)
      Gut microbiota can provide great insight into host health, and studies of the gut microbiota in wildlife are becoming more common. However, the effects of field conditions on gut microbial samples are unknown. This study addresses the following questions: 1) How do environmental factors such as sunlight and insect infestations affect fecal microbial DNA? 2) How does fecal microbial DNA change over time after defecation? 3) How does storage method affect microbial DNA? Fresh fecal samples were collected, pooled, and homogenized from a family group of 6 spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi....
    • Effects of inbreeding and parental incubation on captive breeding success in Hawaiian crows

      Hoeck, Paquita E. A.; Wolak, Matthew E.; Switzer, Richard A.; Kuehler, Cyndi M.; Lieberman, Alan A. (2015)
      We used 17 years of captive breeding records of the Hawaiian crow (Corvus hawaiiensis) to study the effects of individual and parental level of inbreeding on survival through early life…. Our study contributes to evidence that the strength of inbreeding depression is particularly severe in early life traits. It shows that the negative effects of inbreeding on reproductive success should be accounted for even in benign captive environments where survival is maximized and suggests that parental incubation should be favored over artificial incubation in avian captive breeding programs.
    • Effects of life history and reproduction on recruitment time lags in reintroductions of rare plants

      Albrecht, Matthew A.; Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L.; Maschinski, Joyce; Bell, Timothy J.; Bowles, Marlin L.; Brumback, William E.; Duquesnel, Janice; Kunz, Michael; Lange, Jimmy; McCue, Kimberlie A.; et al. (2019)
      Reintroductions are important components of conservation and recovery programs for rare plant species, but their long-term success rates are poorly understood....
    • Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

      Mayor, Pedro; Pérez-Peña, Pedro; Bowler, Mark; Puertas, Pablo; Kirkland, Maire; Bodmer, Richard (2015)
      We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and yearly biomass extracted during timber operations and to calculate the catch per unit effort (CPUE) in subsistence hunting in the community of Esperanza 2 to 5 years before logging activities started and 4 to 7 years after logging began. We also used line transects and the distance method to estimate animal densities before and after logging. We found that 1389 hunted animals and 27,459 kg of mammal biomass were extracted per year from logging concessions. CPUE for ungulates declined; however, it increased for other mammal orders, such as rodents and primates, indicating a shift to alternative prey items. Although collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) may also have declined in numbers, this shift may have been caused by a possibly natural population crash in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) that coincided with the logging periods. We found no evidence that populations of primates were reduced by the logging activities. Because primates are sensitive to hunting, and their populations were of principal concern as logging commenced, this indicates that these forests remain of high conservation value. The unusual socioeconomic situation of these remote territories may mean that they are compatible with wildlife conservation in the Yavari-Mirin basin.
    • Effects of territory size on the reproductive success and social system of the giant otter, south-eastern Peru: Territory size and reproductive success in giant otters

      Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Schenck, C.; Staib, E.; Johnson, P. J.; Macdonald, D. W. (2015)
      The link between resource abundance, dispersion and cooperative breeding in mammals has been a topic of much debate among ecologists. The giant otter social system is facultatively cooperative…. We conclude that giant otter societies are likely shaped by the spatial dispersion of lakes, and food abundance and dispersion within these rich patches.
    • Efficacy of treatment and long-term follow-up of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis PCR-positive anurans following itraconazole bath treatment

      Georoff, Timothy A.; Moore, Robert P.; Rodriguez, Carlos; Pessier, Allan P.; Newton, Alisa L.; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P. (2013)
      All anuran specimens in the Wildlife Conservation Society's collections testing positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) were treated with itraconazole and then studied after treatment to assess the long-term effects of itraconazole and the drug's effectiveness in eliminating Bd carriers. Twenty-four individuals and eight colonies of 11 different species (75 total specimens) tested positive for Bd via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on multicollection survey. All positive individuals and colonies were treated with a 0.01% itraconazole bath solution and retested for Bd via one of two PCR methodologies within 14 days of treatment completion, and all were negative for Bd. A total of 64 animals received secondary follow-up PCR testing at the time of death, 6–8 mo, or 12–15 mo post-treatment. Fourteen animals (14/64, 21.9%) were PCR positive for Bd on second follow-up. The highest percentage positive at second recheck were green-and-black poison dart frogs (Dendrobates auratus; 5/5 specimens, 100%), followed by red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas; 4/11, 36.4%), grey tree frogs (Hyla versicolor; 1/3, 33.3%), and green tree frogs (Hyla cinera; 3/11, 27.3%). Re-testing by PCR performed on 26/28 individuals that died during the study indicated 11/26 (42.3%) were positive (all via DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded skin sections). However, there was no histologic evidence of chytridiomycosis in any of 27/28 individuals. The small number of deceased animals and effects of postmortem autolysis limited the ability to determine statistical trends in the pathology data, but none of the necropsied specimens showed evidence of itraconazole toxicity. Problems with itraconazole may be species dependent, and this report expands the list of species that can tolerate treatment. Although itraconazole is effective for clearance of most individuals infected with Bd, results of the study suggest that repeat itraconazole treatment and follow-up diagnostics may be required to ensure that subclinical infections are eliminated in amphibian collections.
    • Efficient 3D movement-based kernel density estimator and application to wildlife ecology

      Tracey, J.A.; Sheppard, James; Lockwood, G.K.; Chourasia, A.; Tatineni, M.; Fisher, R.N.; Sinkovits, R.S. (Association for Computing MachineryAtlanta (GA), 2014)
    • Elaeophora in the meninges of a Malayan sambar (Rusa unicolor equina)

      Bernard, Jennifer; Grunenwald, Caroline; Stalis, Ilse H.; Varney, Megan; Zuba, Jeffery R.; Gerhold, Richard (2016)
      An adult nematode was grossly identified in the meninges of a Malayan sambar (Rusa unicolor equina), with numerous microfilariae associated with encephalitis and vasculitis on histopathology. The nematode was confirmed to be Elaeophora schneideri by sequencing a portion of the 18S rRNA gene. Our report highlights the potential for aberrant migration of E. schneideri in exotic deer species and the use of advanced testing to specifically identify this metazoan parasite, avoiding misidentification of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis.
    • Elephant behavior toward the dead: A review and insights from field observations

      Goldenberg, Shifra Z.; Wittemyer, George (2020)
      Many nonhuman animals have been documented to take an interest in their dead. A few socially complex and cognitively advanced taxa—primates, cetaceans, and proboscideans—stand out for the range and duration of behaviors that they display at conspecific carcasses....
    • Emerging trends for biobanking amphibian genetic resources: The hope, reality and challenges for the next decade

      Kouba, Andrew J.; Lloyd, Rhiannon E.; Houck, Marlys L.; Silla, Aimee J.; Calatayud, Natalie E.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Clulow, John; Molinia, Frank; Langhorne, Cecilia; Vance, Carrie; et al. (2013)
      …Although many institutions have responded by establishing captive assurance colonies for several critically endangered amphibians, the resources provided by these conservation organizations will not be enough to save all species ‘at risk’ without a multi-pronged approach… Several international workshops on amphibian gene banking and assisted reproductive technologies have been held between 2010 and 2012, bringing together leading experts in the fields of amphibian ecology, physiology, and cryobiology to synthesize emerging trends for biobanking amphibian genetic resources, provide opportunities for collaboration, and discuss future research directions.…
    • Energetic costs of locomotion in bears: is plantigrade locomotion energetically economical?

      Pagano, Anthony M.; Carnahan, Anthony M.; Robbins, Charles T.; Owen, Megan A.; Batson, Tammy; Wagner, Nate; Cutting, Amy; Nicassio-Hiskey, Nicole; Hash, Amy; Williams, Terrie M. (2018)
      Ursids are the largest mammals to retain a plantigrade posture. This primitive posture has been proposed to result in reduced locomotor speed and economy relative to digitigrade and unguligrade species, particularly at high speeds....
    • Environmental variability supports chimpanzee behavioural diversity

      Kalan, Ammie K.; Kulik, Lars; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Boesch, Christophe; Haas, Fabian; Dieguez, Paula; Barratt, Christopher D.; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Agbor, Anthony; Angedakin, Samuel; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020)
      Large brains and behavioural innovation are positively correlated, species-specific traits, associated with the behavioural flexibility animals need for adapting to seasonal and unpredictable habitats. Similar ecological challenges would have been important drivers throughout human evolution. However, studies examining the influence of environmental variability on within-species behavioural diversity are lacking despite the critical assumption that population diversification precedes genetic divergence and speciation. Here, using a dataset of 144 wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities, we show that chimpanzees exhibit greater behavioural diversity in environments with more variability — in both recent and historical timescales. Notably, distance from Pleistocene forest refugia is associated with the presence of a larger number of behavioural traits, including both tool and non-tool use behaviours. Since more than half of the behaviours investigated are also likely to be cultural, we suggest that environmental variability was a critical evolutionary force promoting the behavioural, as well as cultural diversification of great apes.
    • Enzyme immunoassay analysis for androgens in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) urine using enzyme hydrolysis

      Steinman, Karen J.; O'Brien, Justine K.; Fetter, G. Alan; Curry, Erin; Roth, Terri L.; Owen, Megan A.; Robeck, Todd R. (2017)
      Validation of androgen enzyme immunoassays (EIA) using purified antiserum with a high cross-reactivity for testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone in polar bear urine (PBU) has previously been reported. However, the cross-reactivity of this antiserum with urinary testosterone metabolites was not determined....
    • Epidemiology of clinical feline herpesvirus infection in zoo-housed cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

      Witte, Carmel L.; Lamberski, Nadine; Rideout, Bruce; Vaida, Florin; Citino, Scott B.; Barrie, Michael T.; Haefele, Holly J.; Junge, Randall E.; Murray, Suzan; Hungerford, Laura L. (2017)
      OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of and risk factors for clinical feline herpesvirus (FHV) infection in zoo-housed cheetahs and determine whether dam infection was associated with offspring infection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study....
    • Estimating jaguar densities with camera traps: Problems with current designs and recommendations for future studies

      Tobler, Mathias W.; Powell, G.V.N. (2013)
      Camera traps have become the main method for estimating jaguar (Panthera onca) densities. Over 74 studies have been carried out throughout the species range following standard design recommendations. We reviewed the study designs used by these studies and the results obtained. Using simulated data we evaluated the performance of different statistical methods for estimating density from camera trap data including the closed-population capture–recapture models Mo and Mh with a buffer of ½ and the full mean maximum distance moved (MMDM) and spatially explicit capture–recapture (SECR) models under different study designs and scenarios….