• Conolophus pallidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Gentile, G.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Barrington Land Iguana is only found on Santa Fé (Barrington) Island, Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador, and has an estimated area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of 40 km2 . Based on the denuded landscape caused by non-native goats, historic human consumption, and low numbers of iguanas observed in the 1960s–1970s, it is estimated that the iguana population had been reduced by at least 50% up to a point three generations in the past (52 years) and probably continued until after the goats were eradicated in 1972. The most recent survey in 2005 estimated their population to be 3,500–4,000 mature adults and potentially stable, although it was unknown if they had neared carrying capacity. Molecular analysis also shows extremely low genetic variation and richness compared to sampled populations of the Common Land Iguana (Conolophus subcristatus). Heavy predation pressure on this congregatory nesting iguana by Galápagos Hawks may have affected the rate of population recovery since goats were eradicated (1972). The recent introduction to the island of >500 juvenile Española Tortoises that compete with iguanas for scarce food resources may have an impact on the future stability of the iguana population.
    • Conolophus subcristatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Kumar, K.; Gentile, G.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Galápagos Land Iguana has a mostly outdated population size estimate of ca 10,000 mature individuals, in 13 subpopulations that are fragmented from each other by vast lava flows or are on isolated islands. With the exception of Baltra where the subpopulation had been extirpated, subpopulations were considered healthy three generations ago in the 1950s. Since that time, iguanas have been nearly extirpated from most of southern Isabela and Santa Cruz, and have declined in northern Isabela. Juveniles are rarely observed in these remaining nine locations due to continued predation by feral cats. Iguanas are small in number but relatively stable on Fernandina and Plaza Sur. They have increased again on the small islands of Baltra and Seymour Norte (likely to carrying capacity on the latter), due to conservation efforts. Overall, considering the assumed population (current andformer) sizes on the larger islands, it is estimated the population has declined by at least 30% over the last three generations. A minimum estimate of 10–15% decline is projected during the future three generations, based on the presence of invasive alien predators in some subpopulations and impacting juvenile recruitment. The estimated extent of occurrence meets the Vulnerable threshold at 9,524 km2 and the area of occupancy is crudely estimated to be 540 km2 . Further research on fine-scale distribution is needed to clarify an accurate occupancy status of the subpopulations.
    • Crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reuter, K.E; Eppley, Timothy M.; Hending, D; Pacifici, M; Semel, B.; Zaonarivelo, J. (2020)
      A population reduction of greater than or equal to 50% is suspected to be met in the future over a time period of 25 years (three generations based on an 8.4-year generation time, Pacifici et al. 2013). This is based on a continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
    • Crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Razafindramanana, J.; Salmona, J.; King, T.; Roullet, D.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Sgarlata, G.M.; Schwitzer, C. (2020)
      Listed as Critically Endangered as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of greater than or equal to 80% over a period of 30 years (three generations), due primarily to observed continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat from burning of forests to provide pasture for livestock and logging for charcoal production, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. Given the likely continuing population decline, the species has been uplisted to Critically Endangered.
    • Ctenosaura acanthura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Morales-Mávil, J.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Veracruz Spiny-tailed Iguana is widely, but unevenly distributed along the Gulf of México versant, from the state of Tamaulipas in the north, to the edge of Tabasco in the south, México, and Huehuetenango, Guatemala. Within their range, 62% of their habitat has been converted for large- and small-scale agricultural, ranching, oil extraction, and urbanization. It is suspected there has been a decrease in the iguana population correlated with this habitat loss. Although habitat degradation is ongoing, the majority of this loss occurred more than three generations ago. This iguana seems to be distributed among isolated subpopulations, with large concentrations in some areas and rare to absent in others. Data are unavailable on the overall population size or trend. These iguanas occur in mildly human-impacted areas, such as the peripheries of crop/ranchlands and suburban areas; however, they are more vulnerable to predation by free-ranging and feral cats and dogs in these areas. Survival may be limited as a result of this predation pressure. Hunting for human food occurs mostly in the south at a moderate level; quantitative data on the extent of this threat is unknown. The occurrence of these iguanas in the international pet trade is an emerging concern. At the western end of their range, these iguanas hybridize with the central Balsas form of the Guerreran Spinytailed Iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata). Currently, they are considered Least Concern due to their extensive range and large roughly-estimated population size; however, further research on the population size, trends, natural history, and threats is needed.
    • Ctenosaura flavidorsalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Malone, C.L.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Yellow-backed Spiny-tailed Iguana is known from a somewhat large geographic area, however, very little is known about their fine-scale distribution and population size. They are very rare in some localities but believed to be in greater abundance in intact forests. The region’s tropical and subtropical dry forest habitat has been extensively degraded for agriculture, cattle ranching, and urbanization. It is suspected the iguana population has declined in correlation with this habitat loss, however, the exact relationship is unknown and it is likely that most of the reduction occurred more than three generations ago, though habitat destruction is ongoing. These iguanas do not occur in any protected area, have limited legal protection in parts of its range, and suffers from lack of enforcement of existing regulations in others. Iguanas can exist in human-modified areas to some extent, but they are threatened by feral and free-roaming cats and dogs, which is likely to augment natural mortality. The estimated extent of occurrence is 15,952 km2 , meeting the threshold for Vulnerable and it is inferred there must be decline, however, there are not enough data to quantify population size, fragmentation, or the number of locations. The species is therefore assessed as Near Threatened as it almost qualifies for listing as Vulnerable.
    • Ctenosaura hemilopha. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Blázquez, M.C.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Baja California Spiny-tailed Iguana has a wide distribution in the southern portion of the Baja California peninsula, south of Comondú. They seem to be structured in small and restricted subpopulations, with low but evident migration between them. Their extent of occurrence is 35,960 km 2 . They are most common in the southern Los Cabos region and less abundant in the north. Iguanas have not been recently found in several locations with former records. Iguanas are primarily threatened by habitat destruction and predation by free-roaming domestic cats and dogs near semi-urban areas and the periphery of large cities. Populations in the north may experience fluctuations from severe and cyclic droughts. The overall population trend is unknown and estimated to be fewer than 700,000 adults. This species currently qualifies as Least Concern.
    • Ctenosaura macrolopha. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Morales-Mávil, J.; Zarza-Franco, E.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Sonoran Spiny-tailed Iguana is widely, but unevenly distributed in Sonora, Sinaloa, and a small portion of southwestern Chihuahua, México. In this area, 29% of their habitat has been converted to large- and small-scale agricultural, ranching, and urban uses. It is suspected that there has been a rate of loss in the iguana population correlated to this habitat loss; 20% of this loss occurred more than three generations ago. The population seems to be structured in small, isolated subpopulations, with large concentrations in some areas and absent in others. There are no data available on the population size, trend, or density at any locality. They are able to exist in mildly human-impacted areas, such as the peripheries of crop/ranchlands and suburban areas, however, here they are more vulnerable to predation by free-ranging and feral cats and dogs. Survival of juveniles may be limited as a result. In some regions iguanas are persecuted as a pest, while in others they are not intentionally harmed and can be found in city gardens. Hunting for human food occurs mostly for celebrations and is declining according to local interviews. There are no quantitative data on the level of this take. At the southern end of their range, these iguanas are declining in number as they hybridize with the resident Guerreran Spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata). Currently, they are considered Least Concern, but further research on the population size, trends, and threats is needed.
    • Ctenosaura pectinata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Zarza-Franco, E.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Guerreran Spiny-tailed Iguana is widely, but unevenly distributed throughout western México to the southern part of the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca. In this area, 36% of their habitat has been converted to large- and small-scale agricultural, ranching, and urban uses. It is suspected that there has been a decline in the iguana population correlated with this habitat loss; the majority of this habitat loss occurred more than three generations ago. The population seems to be structured in isolated subpopulations, with very large concentrations in some areas and absent in others. There are no data available on the population trends or fine-scale density and size information. They are hunted extensively for human food, medicinal uses, and handicrafts, from wild and cultivated sources. Density has been observed to be over 100 times greater in areas where they are not hunted. The level of consumption is not fully known but estimated to be in the tens of thousands annually....
    • Ctenosaura quinquecarinata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Reynoso, V.H.; Ubeda, M.; Vázquez-Cruz, M.; Rivera-Arroyo, R.C.; Malone, C.L.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Five-keeled Spiny-tailed Iguana is known from three core areas that are isolated and distant from each other, along the Pacific versant of Nicaragua and northwestern Costa Rica. The estimated extent of occurrence surrounding all known localities is 27,316 km2 , but fine-scale distribution, or population size and structure, within these three areas is not known. These iguanas are very rare in some localities but believed to be in greater abundance in intact forests. The iguanas are found in several protected areas. The region’s tropical and subtropical forest habitat has been extensively degraded for agriculture, cattle ranching, and urbanization. It is suspected there has been a decline in the iguana population correlated with this habitat loss. Although habitat degradation is ongoing, the majority of this loss occurred more than three generations ago. They are extensively hunted for human use and intentionally persecuted in the misbelief they are poisonous. They are removed from the wild for the pet trade, although this trade is also supplied from captive sources. They occur in mildly human-impacted areas, such as suburban areas and crop/ranchlands; however, here they are threatened by fires set intentionally to regenerate the fields. In these areas, iguanas are also more vulnerable to predation by free-ranging, and feral cats and dogs. Survival may be limited as a result of this predation pressure. While it is believed the Fivekeeled Spiny-tailed Iguana faces serious threats, and are not likely to be Least Concern, they are classified as Data Deficient because necessary data are lacking at this time to qualify the species within threatened thresholds.
    • Cyclura carinata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Gerber, Glenn P.; Colosimo, G.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      Due to the persistent threat of invasive alien species, and habitat loss and degradation, Turks and Caicos Rock Iguanas currently occupy an area of about 37.1 km2 distributed among approximately 75 small islands with very little gene flow between them. This represents less than 10% of their historic range (500 km2 , >250 islands). Further, islands with abundant iguana subpopulations and no current anthropogenic threats total only 15.6 km2 . The total area of occupancy is estimated at 200 km2 using a 2x2 km grid, overlaying 20 clusters of iguana-inhabited islands. Over the last three generations (42 years), at least 11–20 island subpopulations of iguanas (including some very large islands) have been extirpated. The largest subpopulation is found on Big Ambergris Cay and is currently estimated at 6,000–7,000 mature adults (ca 25% of the total population). However, this represents a decline of 30–40% from this subpopulation's size prior to development in 1995.
    • Cyclura pinguis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Grant, Tandora D.; Bradley, K. A. (2020)
      Although it is believed the Anegada Rock Iguana population size has increased somewhat since the headstarting programme began releasing subadults, the habitat is continuing to be degraded. The significant population reduction (> 80%) for this species occurred over a much longer time period than three generations (66 years) ago due to the introduction of invasive alien species and human settlement. Most of these threats have not ceased for the remnant population and habitat destruction for development has increased. Natural juvenile recruitment is nearly zero due to feral cats preying on hatchlings. This invasive predator must be eradicated in order to solidify the iguana’s long-term future and eliminate the need for continued headstarting. This iguana's estimated extent of occurrence is 56.7 km2 , is endemic to only one island, and qualifies for listing as Critically Endangered.
    • Cyclura stejnegeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Garcia, M.A.; Figuerola, C.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      Although it is believed that the Mona Rhinoceros Iguana population size has increased somewhat since the last systematic survey of 2000 due to initial conservation efforts, the habitat is continuing to be degraded. Juvenile recruitment is impacted by the combined effects of feral pigs eating incubating eggs and cats preying on hatchlings. These invasive predators must be eradicated in order to solidify the longterm future of the iguana. In addition, removal of the Australian Pine plantation is necessary to restore prime nesting areas. The significant population reduction (>75%) for this species occurred much longer than three generations ago due to the introduction of invasive alien species and periods of settlement for mining, agriculture, and fishing. Some of these threats have not ceased for the remnant population, particularly the impacts of predators. The iguana is endemic to only one island, with an estimated extent of occurrence of 80 km², and qualifies for listing as Critically Endangered.
    • Ganzhorna's mouse lemur (Microcebus ganzhorni). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Ganzhorn, J.; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Hyde Roberts, S; Poelstra, J.W; Rakotondranary, S.J.; Ramanamanjato, J.-B.; Randriantafika, F.M.; Refaly, E.; Tsagnangara, C.; et al. (2020)
      Up to 2016, the south-eastern subpopulation of Grey Mouse Lemurs has been considered to represent a disjunct population of Microcebus murinus (Mittermeier et al. 2010). Based on samples from the littoral forest of Mandena a new form has been separated from M. murinus and been named as M. ganzhorni based on genetic grounds (Hotaling et al. 2016). Morphologically M. ganzhorni is indistinguishable from M. murinus and difficult to distinguish from M. griseorufus (M. griseorufus has a white belly with white underfur while M. murinus and M. ganzhorni have greyish underfur) and thus, taxonomic assignments in the field remain uncertain without genetic analyses. Given these uncertainty, the Extent of Occurrence was unclear at the time the species was described. New genetic analyses showed that M. ganzhorni does not occur in Andohahela National Park (Tiley, Poelstra, Yoder et al., unpubl. data) and does not move up the coastal mountains as this is the range of M. tanosi and M. manitatra (Rasoloarison et al. 2013, Donati et al. 2019). M. ganzhorni thus seems to be restricted to littoral forests east and possibly west of Fort Dauphin. In any case, the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be above 10 km� but below 500 km�. These forests are severely fragmented with the largest fragments measuring less than 2 km�. The size of most forest fragments is declining and forests are being degraded. The species tolerates forest degradation and occurs in a wide range of different habitats, including gardens....
    • Grand Cayman Blue Iguana (Cyclura lewisi) AZA Animal Program Population Viability Analysis Report.

      Mechak, L.; Grant, Tandora D.; Krebs, J. (Associaton of Zoos and Aquariums, 2015)
    • Hapalemur meridionalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Donati, G; Balestri, M; Campera, M; Eppley, Timothy M. (2020)
      There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to30% in this species over a three generation period. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, and exploitation through hunting. Between 1999-2005 habitat loss in the Tsitongambarika Protected Area has been 1.74% per year (Andriamasimanana 2008). A population reduction of greater than or equal to 30% is also suspected to be met in the next 27 years (over a three generation time period) due to the same causes. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. Of note, it has been estimated that there will be a 21% reduction in the species' range from 2000 to 2080 due to climate change alone (Brown and Yoder 2015). Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
    • IUCN Red List Assessment: Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis ssp. reticulata)

      Muneza, A.; Doherty, J. B.; Ali, A. Hussein; Fennessy, J.; Marais, A.; O'Connor, David; Wube, T. (2018)
      Reticulated Giraffe is listed as Endangered under criterion A because of an estimated continuing of ~56% over the last 30 years (3 generations). The decline is most likely attributed to habitat loss, deterioration in habitat quality and illegal killing/poaching....
    • Jamaican Iguana (Cyclura collei) AZA Animal Program Population Viability Analysis Report.

      Mechak, L.; Grant, Tandora D.; Krebs, J. (Associaton of Zoos and Aquariums, 2015)
    • Jamaican Iguana (Cyclura collei) AZA Regional Studbook. AZA Yellow SSP Program.

      Grant, Tandora D. (Associaton of Zoos and Aquariums, 2017)
    • Jamaican Iguana: Species Recovery Plan, 2006-2013

      Grant, Tandora D.; Pagni, L; Wilson, B (IUCNGland, Switzerland, 2013)
      Thought to be extinct by the mid 1900s, the Jamaican Iguana was rediscovered in 1970, and again in 1990. The 1970 rediscovery generated surprisingly little interest, either within Jamaica or among international conservation organizations. But when pig hunter Edwin Duffus brought a live specimen to the Hope Zoo in 1990, the local Jamaican Iguana Research and Conservation Group (JIRCG) was rapidly formed, and international support quickly materialized. The renamed Jamaican Iguana Recovery Group (JIRG) is a consortium of local Jamaican organizations and international conservation groups that held a workshop in July 2006 to formulate the present Species Recovery Plan (SRP)...