• Amblyrhynchus cristatus ssp. wikelskii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      MacLeod, A.; Nelson, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      The Santiago Marine Iguana is found on the islands of Santiago, Bartolomé, Pinzón, Rábida, and very likely nearby islets in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The estimated extent of occurrence is 1,164 km2 by minimum convex polygon and the area of occupancy is estimated at 444 km2 . The population size is poorly known and estimated at 450–4,000 total iguanas, with fewer than 2,400 mature individuals. Genetic data indicate a critically low effective population size. Overall population trend is unknown, but is subject to extreme reductions and fluctuations during El Niño events, which are predicted to intensify in the future with ongoing climate change. Invasive Black Rats threaten this iguana more severely when compared to other subspecies, as the islands in its distribution have scarce food resources for rats. Santiago Marine Iguanas are threatened by a region-wide increase in human population and visitation that has multiplied the impacts from stress, marine pollution, habitat degradation, and chance of invasive species introductions and emergent diseases. Land-based tourist presence and intensity has been shown to have a significant overall negative effect on iguana health....
    • Amdoparvovirus Infection in Red Pandas (Ailurus fulgens)

      Alex, Charles E.; Kubiski, Steven V.; Li, Linlin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Wack, Raymund F.; McCarthy, Megan A.; Pesavento, Joseph B.; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A. (2018)
      Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics....
    • Amphibian chytridiomycosis

      Pessier, Allan P.; Divers, S.; Mader, D. (ElsevierSt. Louis, 2014)
    • An assessment of wildlife use by northern Laos nationals

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Glikman, Jenny A. (2020)
      Unsustainable wildlife trade is a well-publicized area of international concern in Laos. Historically rich in both ethnic and biological diversity, Laos has emerged in recent years as a nexus for cross-border trade in floral and faunal wildlife, including endangered and threatened species. However, there has been little sustained research into the scale and scope of consumption of wildlife by Laos nationals themselves. Here, we conducted 100 semistructured interviews to gain a snapshot of consumption of wildlife in northern Laos, where international and in some cases illegal wildlife trade is known to occur. We found that although bear bile for medicine was the most common product consumed, individuals also used a variety of other products, including animals considered endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN. The majority of animals we found consumed are classified as “Vulnerable” or “Least Threatened” by the IUCN; however, sufficient demand for a species can cause increased, rapid decline in the species’ population and significantly increase the challenge of conserving them. These results therefore illuminate where conservation priorities should shift towards, so that stable-yet-consumed species do not mirror the fate of highly trafficked animals.
    • An autonomous GPS geofence alert system to curtail avian fatalities at wind farms

      Sheppard, James; McGann, Andrew; Lanzone, Michael; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2015)
      Wind energy developments are increasingly proliferating as nations seek to secure clean and renewable energy supplies. Wind farms have serious impacts on avifauna populations through injuries sustained by collisions with turbines. Our aim was to develop new biotelemetric technologies to minimize collision risks, particularly for threatened and endangered bird species whose ranges overlap with current and future wind farm sites.
    • An experimental investigation of chemical communication in the polar bear

      Owen, Megan A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Slocomb, C.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G. M.; Simac, Kristin S.; Pessier, Allan P. (2015)
      The polar bear (Ursus maritimus), with its wide-ranging movements, solitary existence and seasonal reproduction, is expected to favor chemosignaling over other communication modalities….These results suggest that pedal scent, regardless of origin, conveys information to conspecifics that may facilitate social and reproductive behavior, and that chemical communication in this species has been adaptively shaped by environmental constraints of its habitat. However, continuously distributed scent signals necessary for breeding behavior may prove less effective if current and future environmental conditions cause disruption of scent trails due to increased fracturing of sea ice.
    • An inexpensive and open-source method to study large terrestrial animal diet and behaviour using time-lapse video and GPS

      de la Rosa, Carlos A. (2019)
      The behaviour of free-ranging animals is difficult to study, especially on the large spatial and temporal scales relevant to long-lived large species. Animal-borne video and environmental data collection systems (AVEDs) record behaviour and other data in real time as animals conduct daily activities....
    • An updated analysis of the consumption of tiger products in urban Vietnam

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Willemsen, Madelon; Dang, Vinh; O’Connor, David; Glikman, Jenny A. (2020)
      Tigers are indisputably in danger of extinction due to habitat loss and demand for their parts. Tigers are extirpated in the wild from every country bar one in mainland East and Southeast Asia. Although consumption of tiger products is known to be established in China, less is known about demand for tiger products in Southeast Asia. In this study, we investigate tiger product demand in Vietnam, a major illegal wildlife consumer country. There has been little research into consumption, in particular the level of use, the products being consumed, variation in use of products between areas, and the motivations of consuming tiger products. Through a quantitative survey of 1120 individuals, we show that use of tiger products could be as high as ~11% of the sample in both urban centers of Vietnam, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Tiger bone glue is the predominant product used, for medicinal purposes. In Hanoi, it is generally purchased by the individual for self-use, while in Ho Chi Minh City it is generally purchased as a gift. In both cities, individuals were generally highly satisfied with the product, indicating entrenched belief in efficacy among consumers. Ultimately, our results show that tiger product use is relatively pervasive. We suggest that conservation organizations should focus on behavior change campaigns that are informed by the results here, and that are specific to each area and to the specific use of tiger product glue for medicine. By reducing demand, beleaguered tiger populations will have a greater chance of stabilization and eventual growth.
    • Analyzing the past to understand the future: Natural mating yields better reproductive rates than artificial insemination in the giant panda

      Li, Disheng; Wintle, Nathan J. P.; Zhang, Guiquan; Wang, Chengdong; Luo, Bo; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S.; Owen, Megan A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2017)
      ...Here we analyze 21 years (1996–2016) of giant panda reproductive data from 304 insemination events to determine relative success rates of insemination methods and evaluate management strategies. The birth rate after natural mating was 60.7%, 50.6% for combined natural mating and artificial insemination techniques, and 18.5% for artificial insemination (AI)....
    • Androgen and glucocorticoid production in the male killer whale (Orcinus orca): influence of age, maturity, and environmental factors

      O'Brien J. K.; Steinman K. J.; Fetter, G. Alan; Robeck T. R. (2016)
      Circulating concentrations of testosterone and its precursor androstenedione, as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA ) and the adrenal hormones cortisol and corticosterone were measured at monthly intervals in 14 male killer whales (Orcinus orca ) aged 0.8–38 years. Analyses were performed for examination of the relationships of age, sexual maturation status (STATUS ), season, and environmental temperature (monthly air ambient temperature, A‐TEMP ) with hormone production using a mixed effects linear regression model with animal ID as the random variable....
    • Animal cytogenetics

      Houck, Marlys L.; Lear, Teri L.; Charter, Suellen J.; Arsham, Marilyn S.; Barch, Margaret J.; Lawce, Helen J. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017)
      Chromosome karyotyping and gene mapping has been carried out for a wide variety of animal species and continues to expand. Cross-species chromosome painting, or Zoo-FISH, for example, can now be used to identify genome segments originating from a common ancestor that have been conserved between species for millions of years....
    • Animal Welfare in Conservation Breeding: Applications and Challenges

      Greggor, Alison L.; Vicino, Greg A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Fidgett, Andrea; Brenner, Deena; Kinney, Matthew E.; Farabaugh, Susan M.; Masuda, Bryce M.; Lamberski, Nadine (2018)
      Animal welfare and conservation breeding have overlapping and compatible goals that are occasionally divergent. Efforts to improve enclosures, provide enriching experiences, and address behavioral and physical needs further the causes of animal welfare in all zoo settings. However, by mitigating stress, increasing behavioral competence, and enhancing reproduction, health, and survival, conservation breeding programs must also focus on preparing animals for release into the wild. Therefore conservation breeding facilities must strike a balance of promoting high welfare, while minimizing the effects of captivity to increase population sustainability. As part of the Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program, San Diego Zoo Global operates two captive breeding facilities that house a number of endangered Hawaiian bird species. At our facilities we aim to increase captive animal welfare through husbandry, nutrition, behavior-based enrichment, and integrated veterinary practices. These efforts help foster a captive environment that promotes the development of species-typical behaviors. By using the “Opportunities to Thrive” guiding principles, we outline an outcome-based welfare strategy, and detail some of the related management inputs, such as transitioning to parental rearing, and conducting veterinary exams remotely. Throughout we highlight our evidence-based approach for evaluating our practices, by monitoring welfare and the effectiveness of our inputs. Additionally we focus on some of the unique challenges associated with improving welfare in conservation breeding facilitates and outline concrete future steps for improving and evaluating welfare outcomes that also meet conservation goals.
    • Annual variation in breeding success and changes in population density of Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Lago Preto Conservation Concession, Peru

      Bowler, Mark; Barton, C.; McCann-Wood, S.; Puertas, P.; Bodmer, R.; Veiga, Liza M.; Barnett, Adrian A.; Ferrari, Stephen F.; Norconk, Marilyn A. (Cambridge University PressCambridge, 2013)
    • Anthropogenic and topographic correlates of natural vegetation cover within agricultural landscape mosaics in Turkey

      Pekin, Burak K. (2016)
      ...I assessed the influence of anthropogenic and topographic variables on the extent of agricultural mosaics with high natural vegetation cover in the country of Turkey where a large extent of natural and semi-natural vegetation is maintained by traditional agriculture. GIS layers depicting human land use, elevation, slope, roads and population data were obtained and summarized at two spatial scales, within provinces and for 100km2 grid cells covering the country’s entire agricultural land area.…
    • Anthropogenic change alters ecological relationships via interactive changes in stress physiology and behavior within and among organisms

      Hammond, Talisin T.; Ortiz-Jimenez, Chelsea A; Smith, Jennifer E (2020)
      ...Human-induced changes in the stress physiology of one species and the downstream impacts on behavior can therefore interact with the physiological and behavioral responses of other organisms to alter emergent ecological phenomena. Here, we highlight three scenarios in which the stress physiology and behavior of individuals on different sides of an ecological relationship are interactively impacted by anthropogenic change....
    • Applications of animal behavior to conservation

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Greggor, Alison L.; Choe, Jae (Academic PressOxford, UK, 2019)
      Animal behavior can influence conservation outcomes, and can be used as a tool for diagnosing anthropogenic impacts and managing species’ recovery. Researchers from disparate backgrounds in animal behavior, most notably behavioral ecology and applied ethology, are using their research to contribute to conservation efforts, including reserve design, human disturbance, and reintroduction programs....
    • Applying SNP-derived molecular coancestry estimates to captive breeding programs

      Ivy, Jamie A.; Putnam, Andrea S.; Navarro, Asako Y.; Gurr, Jessica; Ryder, Oliver A. (2016)
      ...Although pedigree-based breeding strategies are quite effective at retaining long-term genetic variation, management of zoo-based breeding programs continues to be hampered when pedigrees are poorly known. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 options for generating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to resolve unknown relationships within captive breeding programs...
    • Approaches to studying behavior in captive sloth bears through animal keeper feedback

      Khadpekar, Yaduraj; Whiteman, John P.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Owen, Megan A.; Prakash, Sant (2018)
      Animal keepers at zoos and wildlife rescue centers often possess in-depth knowledge of the health and behavior of the individuals under their care. While it is often not feasible for keepers to regularly collect behavior data through formal scientific methods, efforts should be made to find alternative means to capture this knowledge.....
    • Are current research funding structures sufficient to address rapid Arctic change in a meaningful way?

      Ibarguchi, Gabriela; Rajdev, Vinay; Murray, Maribeth S. (Norwegian Polar Institute, 2018)
      Arctic environmental changes already impact regional ecosystems, economies and northerncommunities, and are having increasing influence on many aspects of the global system.Interest in the Arctic has increased in concert with our improved awareness of potentialchanges; however, research funding has not necessarily kept pace with the need to improveour understanding of Arctic system change to inform evidence-based decision making.Analyses of data on research funding trends (2003–14) in Canada, the USA and the EUindicate that less than 3% of the total budget the funding agencies considered is allocatedin any given year to Arctic-related research. Furthermore, alignment is uneven amongestablished scientific research priorities, existing societal needs and projects awarded fund-ing. New support mechanisms and improved alignment among resources, expertise andpriorities, including Indigenous research priorities, are vital to planning and adaptation inthe face of ongoing Arctic change.
    • Assessing possible hybridization among managed Nubian ibex in North America

      Putnam, Andrea S.; Nguyen, Tram N.; Mott, Alison; Korody, Marisa L.; Ryder, Oliver A. (2020)
      Hybridization among closely related species is a concern in zoo and aquarium populations where unpedigreed animals are frequently exchanged with the private sector. In this study, we examine possible hybridization in a group of Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) imported into the Association of Zoos and Aquariums’ (AZA) Species Survival Program (SSP) from a private institution....