• Pretreatment of Addra gazelle (Nanger dama ruficollis) spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins improves cryosurvival

      Wojtusik, Jessye; Pennington, Parker M.; Songsasen, Nucharin; Padilla, Luis R.; Citino, Scott B.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S. (2016)
      ...Our aim was to characterize Addra gazelle (Nanger dama ruficollis) ejaculate traits and to assess the effects of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) on sperm cryosurvival. Fresh ejaculates were treated with CLC (0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/ml) prior to cryopreservation.... Reported advances will facilitate establishment of a frozen repository and support the genetic management of this critically endangered north African desert antelope.
    • Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi and other trypanosomatids in frequently-hunted wild mammals from the Peruvian Amazon

      Morales, E. Angelo; Mayor, Pedro; Bowler, Mark; Aysanoa, Esar; Pérez-Velez, Erika S.; Pérez, Jocelyn; Ventocilla, Julio A.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Lescano, Andrés G. (2017)
      To better understand the ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, we evaluated the prevalence of T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids in four orders of wild mammals hunted and consumed by inhabitants of three remote indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Of 300 wild mammals sampled, 115 (38.3%) were infected with trypanosomatids and 15 (5.0%) with T. cruzi....
    • Progress in the ecology and conservation of giant pandas

      Wei, Fuwen; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Hu, Yibo; Nie, Yonggang; Yan, Li; Zhang, Zejun; Qi, Dunwu; Zhu, Lifeng (2015)
      Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) conservation is a possible success story in the making. If extinction of this iconic endangered species can be avoided, the species will become a showcase program for the Chinese government and its collaborators. We reviewed the major advancements in ecological science for the giant panda, examining how these advancements have contributed to panda conservation….
    • Prosimians

      McAloose, Denise; Stalis, Ilse H.; Terio, Karen A.; McAloose, Denise; St. Leger, Judy (Academic PressSan Diego, CA, 2018)
    • Protected only on paper? Three case studies from protected areas in the Dominican Republic

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Carreras De León, R; León, YM (2016)
      ...Herein we evaluate 3 case studies from the Dominican Republic (DR), one of the most biologically diverse countries in the Caribbean. We focus on conflicts between the DR’s national protected areas system and agriculture, tourism, and the charcoal trade....
    • Proximate causes of the red face of the bald uakari monkey (Cacajao calvus)

      Mayor, P.; Mamani, J.; Montes, D.; González-Crespo, C.; Sebastián, M. A.; Bowler, Mark (2015)
      In social species, such as primates, facial appearances transmit a variety of social signals. Although it is suggested that the intense red colour of the face of the bald uakari monkey might be an indicator of health, this hypothesis still has not been verified. This study describes the histological structure of the skin of the face in the bald uakari, compared with other non-red neotropical primates, to better understand the maintenance of its colour. The facial skin of the bald uakari monkey is characterized by a thinner epidermis, absence of melanin pigments and a high density of vascular capillaries that spread below the epidermis. These vascular capillaries are larger and more tortuous than in other neotropical primates. The skin of the face of the bald uakari monkey allows a direct external assessment of haematological status, suggesting that the colour of the face would be an honest indicator of health, but could also signal sexual or behavioural states.
    • Pulmonary hyalinosis in captive sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)

      Sokol, Set A.; Agnew, Dalen W.; Lewis, Anne D.; Southard, Teresa L.; Miller, Andrew D. (2017)
      ...Lung lesions resembling pulmonary hyalinosis were observed in 6 captive adult sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps; 5 females and 1 male) in a retrospective review of 18 autopsied animals. Clinical signs for 3 of the sugar gliders included lethargy, tachypnea, and dyspnea....
    • Qualitative impact evaluation of a social marketing campaign for conservation

      Salazar, Gabby; Mills, Morena; Veríssimo, Diogo (2019)
      Social marketing campaigns use marketing techniques to influence human behavior for the greater social good. In the conservation sector, social marketing campaigns have been used to influence behavior for the benefit of biodiversity as well as society....
    • Quantifying the scale and socioeconomic drivers of bird hunting in Central African forest communities

      Whytock, Robin C.; Morgan, Bethan J.; Awa, Taku; Bekokon, Zacharie; Abwe, Ekwoge A.; Buij, Ralph; Virani, Munir; Vickery, Juliet A.; Bunnefeld, Nils (2018)
    • Quantity does not always mean quality: The importance of qualitative social science in conservation research

      Rust, Niki A.; Abrams, Amber; Challender, Daniel W. S.; Chapron, Guillaume; Ghoddousi, Arash; Glikman, Jenny A.; Gowan, Catherine H.; Hughes, Courtney; Rastogi, Archi; Said, Alicia; et al. (2017)
      Qualitative methods are important to gain a deep understanding of complex problems and poorly researched areas. They can be particularly useful to help explain underlying conservation problems....
    • Ramantsoavanaa's southern woolly lemur (Avahi ramanantsoavani). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Andriamisedra, T.R; Ranaivoarisoa, F.N.; Peterson, C.R.; Ratsimbazafy, J.; Louis, E.E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence of this species covers approximately 14,376 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also thought to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
    • Rapid response to evaluate the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and ranavirus in wild amphibian populations in Madagascar

      Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F. (2015)
      We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease. Standardized population monitoring of key amphibian and reptile species should be established with urgency to enable early detection of potential impacts of disease emergence in this global biodiversity hotspot.
    • Rare plant reintroduction and other conservation translocations: Introduction

      Maschinski, Joyce; Albrecht, Matthew A.; Font, Jeremie; Monks, Leonie; Haskins, Kristin E.; Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      The ultimate goal of rare plant conservation is to ensure that unique taxa experience continued evolution within a natural context. The science of reintroduction is rapidly evolving.
    • Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse

      Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; et al. (2013)
      …We estimate that the Przewalski’s and domestic horse populations diverged 38–72 kyr bp, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski’s horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski’s horses represent the last surviving wild horse population….
    • Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse

      Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; et al. (2013)
      Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560–780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski’s horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus)....
    • Recommended guiding principles for reporting on camera trapping research

      Meek, P. D.; Ballard, G.; Claridge, A.; Kays, R.; Moseby, K.; O’Brien, T.; O’Connell, A.; Sanderson, J.; Swann, D. E.; Tobler, Mathias W.; et al. (2014)
      …Here we propose a series of guiding principles for reporting methods and results obtained using camera traps. Attributes of camera trapping we cover include: (i) specifying the model(s) of camera traps(s) used, (ii) mode of deployment, (iii) camera settings, and (iv) study design….
    • Reconsidering habitat associations in the Anthropocene

      Hennessy, Sarah McCullough; Marczak, Susanne A.; Nordstrom, Lisa A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (2018)
      The California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi) is generally undervalued despite serving as an ecosystem engineer in grassland ecosystems. Evidence of significant engineering effects by squirrels indicates that population reductions have cascading effects on other species, including several conservation-dependent species. While the theory and practices behind habitat association studies are already well established, our application of this approach helped identify priority management options in degraded grasslands expected to change further under shifts in climate. In this study we conducted surveys for California ground squirrels throughout San Diego County grasslands and examined habitat covariates to determine the ecological variables currently associated with occurrence. The primary objectives were to 1) improve our understanding of the habitat variables associated with squirrel presence, and 2) develop a predictive model for squirrel habitat suitability at a local scale. The most predictive models included significant main effects for percent sand (as a component of soil texture) and vegetation cover. A 10% increase in vegetation cover was associated with 1.3 fold lower odds of squirrel presence, whereas a 10% increase in percent sand was associated with 2.0 times higher odds of squirrel presence. Comparison of the predictive accuracy of soil texture data at two scales (fine-scale field vs. landscape scale GIS layers) showed fine-scale field sampling has greater predictive strength. Because soil type is a logistically non-malleable factor for wildlife managers, it is important to categorize management sites by soil type to identify the potential for promoting fossorial species on the landscape. With the prospect of shifting landscape ecotones due to climate change, it is as important to understand the basic habitat requirements of keystone species as for rare species.
    • Reconsidering the use of soy and alfalfa in southern white rhinoceros diets

      Tubbs, Christopher W.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Milnes, Matthew R. (2017)
      The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR) population is not currently self-sustaining due to the reproductive failure of captive-born females. Our research into this phenomenon points to chemicals produced by plants common to captive diets, such as soy and alfalfa, as possible causes...
    • Recursive movement patterns: Review and synthesis across species

      Berger-Tal, Oded; Bar-David, Shirli (2015)
      Recursive movement—returns to previously visited areas—is a widespread phenomenon exhibited by a large range of species from bees and birds to primates and large felines, at different spatial scales. Nevertheless, the wide scope and generality of this phenomenon remain underestimated by the scientific community. This limited appreciation for the pervasiveness of recursive movement can be attributed to its study by parallel lines of research, with different methodologies and nomenclature, and almost no cross referencing among them. Among these lines of studies are traplining behavior in foraging ecology, path recursions in movement ecology and the ecology of fear in predator–prey studies. We synthesize these three lines of research, to underline the mechanisms driving these patterns and create a conceptual model for recursive movement behavior across species and spatio-temporal scales. The emergence and complexity of recursive movement patterns are determined by the rate of resource recovery, environmental heterogeneity, the predictability of resource recovery, and the animal's cognitive capabilities. Our synthesis can be used to generate predictions within and among systems, as well as to promote the sharing of knowledge and methodologies gained in each sub-field. Such sharing can greatly advance our understanding of behavioral and ecological processes and provide novel opportunities for future research.
    • Red brown lemur (Eulemur rufus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Razafindramanana, J.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Rakotondrabe, R.; Rakotoarisoa, A.A.; Ravaloharimanitra, M.; King, T. (2020)
      There is a suspected population reduction of greater than or equal to 30% in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 8 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, and exploitation through unsustainable levels of hunting. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.