• Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Borgerson, C.; Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E.; Johnson, S; Louis, E.E.; Razafindramanana, J. (2020)
      A population reduction ofgreater than or equal to 80% is suspected to be met over three generations (24 years, assuming a generation length of 8 years). This is based on a continuing decline of the population, due to unsustainable hunting pressure and a reduction in the extent and quality of habitat from subsistence and cash-crop agriculture, illegal logging for precious timber, and frequent cyclones. Based on suspected and inferred decline, measured direct and indirect threats, and its narrow niche dimensions, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.
    • Rediscovery of the horseshoe shrimp Lightiella serendipita Jones, 1961 (Cephalocarida: Hutchinsoniellidae) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, with a key to the worldwide species of Cephalocarida

      Garcia, Crystal; Woo, Isa; Rogers, D. Christopher; Flanagan, Alison M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.
      Lightiella serendipitaJones, 1961 was first discovered in San Francisco Bay, California in 1953, but it had not been observed since 1988. In 2017, a total of 13 adult L. serendipita specimens were found as part of a study in central San Francisco Bay, nearly doubling the total number of specimens ever collected. We measured vertical distribution of macroinvertebrates and environmental variables, including grain size and chemical composition of sediment samples, to evaluate potential features associated with the habitat of the species. Specimens were generally found in sediments with low organic matter (1.7–3%), high sulfate concentrations (594.6–647 ppm SO4), fine grain size (12.8–36.2% sand, 35.6–58% silt, 22.8–37.6% clay) and were mostly found in deep core sections (4–10 cm). Specimens were also consistently observed in cores containing tube-forming Polychaeta (i.e., Sabaco elongatus (Verrill, 1873) and Capitellidae), suggesting L. serendipita may have a commensal relationship with sedentary polychaetes, as do other cephalocaridans such as Lightiella incisaGooding, 1963. We provide a scanning electron micrograph of L. serendipita and the first complete key to the species in class Cephalocarida to help elucidate the taxonomy of this rare crustacean taxon. The perceived absence of L. serendipita in previous surveys of the Bay may be attributable to its rarity; however, additional research is needed to fully understand habitat requirements and population size of this unique endemic species.
    • Reducing human impacts on Andean bears in NW Peru through community-based conservation

      Young, Samantha; Van Horn, Russell C.; Glikman, Jenny A.; Nevin, Owen; Convery, Ian; Davis, Peter (Boydell & BrewerNewcastle, UK, 2019)
      Andean bears live throughout the tropical Andes in a large latitudinal and elevational gradient across diverse habitats. They are threatened throughout their range by habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and hunting, and in many places they overlap with human settlements and agricultural fields, creating competition or conflict for resources....
    • Refining reproductive parameters for modelling sustainability and extinction in hunted primate populations in the Amazon

      Bowler, Mark; Anderson, Matthew J.; Montes, Daniel; Pérez, Pedro; Mayor, Pedro; Fenton, Brock; Fenton, Brock (2014)
      Primates are frequently hunted in Amazonia. Assessing the sustainability of hunting is essential to conservation planning. The most-used sustainability model, the ‘Production Model’, and more recent spatial models, rely on basic reproductive parameters for accuracy. These parameters are often crudely estimated. To date, parameters used for the Amazon’s most-hunted primate, the woolly monkey (Lagothrix spp.), come from captive populations in the 1960s, when captive births were rare. Furthermore, woolly monkeys have since been split into five species. We provide reproductive parameters calculated by examining the reproductive organs of female Poeppig’s woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii), collected by hunters as part of their normal subsistence activity. Production was 0.48–0.54 young per female per year, and an interbirth interval of 22.3 to 25.2 months, similar to parameters from captive populations. However, breeding was seasonal, which imposes limits on the maximum reproductive rate attainable. We recommend the use of spatial models over the Production Model, since they are less sensitive to error in estimated reproductive rates. Further refinements to reproductive parameters are needed for most primate taxa. Methods like ours verify the suitability of captive reproductive rates for sustainability analysis and population modelling for populations under differing conditions of hunting pressure and seasonality. Without such research, population modelling is based largely on guesswork.
    • Regulation of endocrine systems by the microbiome: Perspectives from comparative animal models

      Williams, Candace L.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Tubbs, Christopher W.; Bisesi, Joseph H. (2020)
      The microbiome regulates endocrine systems and influences many aspects of hormone signaling. Using examples from different animal taxa, we highlight the state of the science in microbiome research as it relates to endocrinology and endocrine disruption research....
    • Relationship between behavioural diversity and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites: a case study with cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

      Miller, Lance J.; Pisacane, CB; Vicino, Greg A. (2016)
      ... The goal of the current study was to continue efforts to validate behavioural diversity as an indicator of welfare using cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) as a model species. Behavioural and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite data were collected on 18 cheetah at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park over a period of three months to explore the relationship between behavioural diversity and adrenal hormones related to the stress response.....
    • Relationships between glucocorticoids and infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in three amphibian species

      Hammond, Talisin T.; Blackwood, Paradyse E.; Shablin, Samantha A.; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L. (2020)
      It is often hypothesized that organisms exposed to environmental change may experience physiological stress, which could reduce individual quality and make them more susceptible to disease. Amphibians are amongst the most threatened taxa, particularly in the context of disease, but relatively few studies explore links between stress and disease in amphibian species....
    • Reproductive impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on wildlife species: Implications for conservation of endangered species

      Tubbs, Christopher W.; McDonough, Caitlin E. (2018)
      Wildlife have proven valuable to our understanding of the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health by contributing considerably to our understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of EDC exposure. But the threats EDCs present to populations of wildlife species themselves are significant, particularly for endangered species whose existence is vulnerable to any reproductive perturbation....
    • Reproductive performance parameters in a large population of game-ranched white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum)

      Ververs, Cyrillus; Langhout, Martine van Zijll; Hostens, Miel; Otto, Michelle; Govaere, Jan; Durrant, Barbara S.; Soom, Ann Van (2017)
      The population of free-roaming white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) is under serious threat. Captive breeding of this species is therefore becoming more important, but this is challenging and often not successful. Obtaining reproductive reference values is a crucial aspect of improving these breeding results. In this study performed between 2008 and 2016, reproductive performance was analysed in 1,354 animals kept in a 8000 hectares game-ranched environment. Descriptive statistics of this captive population showed an average annual herd growth (%) of 7 .0±0.1 (min -9 –max 15). Average calving rates were calculated as an annual calving rate of 20% and biennial calving rate of 37% adult females calving per year. Females had a median age of 83.2 months at first calving (IQR 72.9–110.7) and inter-calving intervals of 29.2 (IQR 24.6–34.8) months. Furthermore, translocations of animals did not interfere with reproductive success in terms of inter-calving periods or age at first calving. Multivariate models showed a clear seasonal calving pattern with a significant increase of the number of calvings during December–April when compared to April–December. Our results did not show any significant skewed progeny sex ratios. Weather observations showed no significant influence of rain or season on sex ratios of the calves.
    • Reproductive techniques for ovarian monitoring and control in amphibians

      Calatayud, Natalie E.; Chai, Norin; Gardner, Nicole R.; Curtis, Michelle J.; Stoops, Monica A. (2019)
      Ovarian control and monitoring in amphibians require a multi-faceted approach. There are several applications that can successfully induce reproductive behaviors and the acquisition of gametes and embryos for physiological or molecular research. Amphibians contribute to one-quarter to one-third of vertebrate research, and of interest in this context is their contribution to the scientific community's knowledge of reproductive processes and embryological development. However, most of this knowledge is derived from a small number of species. In recent times, the decimation of amphibians across the globe has required increasing intervention by conservationists. The captive recovery and assurance colonies that continue to emerge in response to the extinction risk make existing research and clinical applications invaluable to the survival and reproduction of amphibians held under human care. The success of any captive population is founded on its health and reproduction and the ability to develop viable offspring that carry forward the most diverse genetic representation of their species. For researchers and veterinarians, the ability to monitor and control ovarian development and health is, therefore, imperative. The focus of this article is to highlight the different assisted reproductive techniques that can be used to monitor and, where appropriate or necessary, control ovarian function in amphibians. Ideally, any reproductive and health issues should be reduced through proper captive husbandry, but, as with any animal, issues of health and reproductive pathologies are inevitable. Non-invasive techniques include behavioral assessments, visual inspection and palpation and morphometric measurements for the calculation of body condition indices and ultrasound. Invasive techniques include hormonal injections, blood sampling, and surgery. Ovarian control can be exercised in a number of ways depending on the application required and species of interest.
    • Research priorities from animal behaviour for maximising conservation progress

      Greggor, Alison L.; Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Angeloni, Lisa; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Blackwell, Bradley F.; St. Clair, Colleen Cassady; Crooks, Kevin; de Silva, Shermin; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; et al. (2016)
      Poor communication between academic researchers and wildlife managers limits conservation progress and innovation. As a result, input from overlapping fields, such as animal behaviour, is underused in conservation management despite its demonstrated utility as a conservation tool and countless papers advocating its use. Communication and collaboration across these two disciplines are unlikely to improve without clearly identified management needs and demonstrable impacts of behavioural-based conservation management. To facilitate this process, a team of wildlife managers and animal behaviour researchers conducted a research prioritisation exercise, identifying 50 key questions that have great potential to resolve critical conservation and management problems. The resulting agenda highlights the diversity and extent of advances that both fields could achieve through collaboration.
    • Resolution of a localized granuloma caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex on the cere of a Bruce's green pigeon (Treron waalia)

      Zikovitz, Andrea E.; Stalis, Ilse H.; Bicknese, Elizabeth; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W. (2018)
      A 3-year-old female Bruce's green pigeon (Treron waalia) was presented with granulomatous inflammation of the cere and underlying tissues with osteomyelitis and bone proliferation of the dorsal premaxilla. Biopsy and culture revealed the presence of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex, and multi-antimicrobial treatment was initiated with clarithromycin, ethambutol, rifabutin, and enrofloxacin....
    • Revised Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of the Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) 2014–2019

      Dunn, Andrew; Bergl, Richard; Byler, Dirck; Eben-Ebai, Samuel; Etiendem, Denis Ndeloh; Fotso, Roger; Ikfuingei, Romanus; Imong, Inaoyom; Jameson, Chris; Macfie, Elizabeth J.; et al. (IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group and Wildlife Conservation SocietyNew York, NY, USA, 2014)
      This plan outlines measures that should ensure that Cross River gorilla numbers are able to increase at key core sites, allowing them to extend into areas where they have been absent for many years.
    • Rewinding the process of mammalian extinction

      Saragusty, Joseph; Diecke, Sebastian; Drukker, Micha; Durrant, Barbara S.; Friedrich Ben-Nun, Inbar; Galli, Cesare; Göritz, Frank; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Hermes, Robert; Holtze, Susanne; et al. (2016)
      With only three living individuals left on this planet, the northern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) could be considered doomed for extinction. It might still be possible, however, to rescue the (sub)species by combining novel stem cell and assisted reproductive technologies. To discuss the various practical options available to us, we convened a multidisciplinary meeting under the name “Conservation by Cellular Technologies.” The outcome of this meeting and the proposed road map that, if successfully implemented, would ultimately lead to a self-sustaining population of an extremely endangered species are outlined here. The ideas discussed here, while centered on the northern white rhinoceros, are equally applicable, after proper adjustments, to other mammals on the brink of extinction. Through implementation of these ideas we hope to establish the foundation for reversal of some of the effects of what has been termed the sixth mass extinction event in the history of Earth, and the first anthropogenic one. Zoo Biol. 35:280–292, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Righting past wrongs and ensuring the future

      Moehrenschlager, Axel; Shier, Debra M.; Moorhouse, Tom P.; Price, Mark R. Stanley (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013)
      The near-exponential growth in the frequency of reintroductions surely indicates that reintroductions are now a highly effective tool to combat the increasing loss of global biodiversity. This chapter discusses the questions regarding risks, the initiation of reintroductions, the refinement of reintroduction techniques and evaluations of reintroduction programme success. It examines key components that comprise the status quo of reintroduction science and proposed crucial advancements where appropriate. The remainder of this chapter also examines the increasing challenges and possible responses of the future, particularly within the context of emerging infectious diseases, increasing habitat loss and climate change. It outlines some of the ways in which rigour could be implemented to improve the success rates - and their definition - of reintroductions. The chapter poses the question of whether reintroductions are on the verge of a disciplinary shift within the conservation toolbox.
    • Rigorous wildlife disease surveillance

      Watsa, Mrinalini; Wildlife Disease Surveillance Focus Group; Erkenswick, G.; Prost, S.; Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Moore, Caroline; Kubiski, Steven V.; Witte, Carmel L.; Ogden, R.; Meredith, A.; et al. (2020)
      Evidence suggests that zoonotic (animal origin) coronaviruses have caused three recent emerging infectious disease (EID) outbreaks: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the search for an intermediate host for SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19), studies have identified SARS-CoV-2–like strains in bats (1) and pangolins (2), but these do not contain the same polybasic cleavage site that is present in SARS-CoV-2 (3). It is unknown what the intermediate host for this spillover event was because to date there are no international or national conventions on pathogen screening associated with animals, animal products, or their movements, and capacity for EID diagnostics is limited along much of the human-wildlife interface....
    • Ringed seal (Pusa hispida) tooth annuli as an index of reproduction in the Beaufort Sea

      Nguyen, Linda; Pilfold, Nicholas W.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Stirling, Ian; Bohart, Alyssa M.; Richardson, Evan (2017)
      Multi-decadal time-series of biological indices that reflect the state of a population are rare in ecological studies, but invaluable for assessing environmental regulation of population dynamics. We utilized canine teeth extracted from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) killed by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Beaufort Sea, Canada, in 1985–2011, to obtain widths of annual growth layers in the cementum....
    • Roatán spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura oedirhina): Conservation Action Plan 2020—2025

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Goode, Ashley B.C.; Grant, Tandora D. (IUCN SSC Iguana Specialist GroupGland, Switzerland, 2020)
      The Endangered Roatán spiny-tailed iguana, Ctenosaura oedirhina, is found only on the islands of Roatán, Barbareta, and some surrounding cays. Although dense populations can be found in some privately protected locations, threats persist and management efforts are needed. This document presents a comprehensive five-year plan for the conservation and management actions considered essential to ensuring the long-term survival of Ctenosaura oedirhina in the wild. This plan combines knowledge and expertise from government, nongovernmental organizations, and the community of Roatán and greater Honduras, with the collective expertise of the IUCN SSC Iguana Specialist Group....
    • Rock iguana studbook (Genus Cyclura)

      Grant, Tandora D. (San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, 2014)
    • Rub-tree selection by Andean bears in the Peruvian dry forest

      Kleiner, Jack D.; Van Horn, Russell C.; Swenson, Jon E.; Steyaert, Sam M.J.G. (2018)
      To advance our knowledge on the rubbing behavior of Andean bears (Tremarctos ornatus), we assessed characteristics of their rub-trees in the Peruvian tropical dry forest, where water is a rare and critical resource. We registered characteristics of rubbed and unrubbed trees and shrubs along bear trails in an area of approximately 100 km2 surrounding 7 waterholes in the western Andes foothills of Peru during austral summer 2014–2015....