• Assessing the effectiveness of China’s panda protection system

      Wei, Wei; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Pilfold, Nicholas W.; Owen, Megan A.; Dai, Qiang; Wei, Fuwen; Han, Han; Yang, Zhisong; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; et al. (2020)
      ...Together these findings indicate that China’s panda reserves have been effective and that they are functioning better over time, conserving more and better habitats and containing more pandas. While China’s protected area system still has much room for improvement [4, 5], including to support pandas [16], these findings underscore the progress made in China’s nascent environmental movement.
    • Assessment and validation of miniaturized technology for the remote tracking of critically endangered Galápagos pink land iguana (Conolophus marthae)

      Loreti, Pierpaolo; Bracciale, Lorenzo; Colosimo, Giuliano; Vera, Carlos; Gerber, Glenn P.; De Luca, Massimiliano; Gentile, Gabriele (2020)
      Background: Gathering ecological data for species of conservation concern inhabiting remote regions can be daunting and, sometimes, logistically infeasible. We built a custom-made GPS tracking device that allows to remotely and accurately collect animal position, environmental, and ecological data, including animal temperature and UVB radiation. We designed the device to track the critically endangered Galápagos pink land iguana, Conolophus marthae. Here we illustrate some technical solutions adopted to respond to challenges associated with such task and present some preliminary results from controlled trial experiments and feld implementation. Results: Our tests show that estimates of temperature and UVB radiation are affected by the design of our device, in particular by its casing. The introduced bias, though, is systematic and can be corrected using linear and quadratic regressions on collected values. Our data show that GPS accuracy loss, although introduced by vegetation and orientation of the devices when attached to the animals, is acceptable, leading to an average error gap of less than 15 m in more than 50% of the cases. Conclusions: We address some technical challenges related to the design, construction, and operation of a custom made GPS tracking device to collect data on animals in the wild. Systematic bias introduced by the technological implementation of the device exists. Understanding the nature of the bias is crucial to provide correction models. Although designed to track land iguanas, our device could be used in other circumstances and is particularly useful to track organisms inhabiting locations that are diffcult to reach or for which classic telemetry approaches are unattainable.
    • Assessment of in situ nest decay rate for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti Matschie, 1914) in Mbam-Djerem National Park, Cameroon: implications for long-term monitoring

      Kamgang, Serge Alexis; Carme, Tuneu Corral; Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Gonder, Mary Katherine; Sinsin, Brice (Springer, 2020)
      Accurate assessment of great ape populations is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Indirect survey methods using nest and dung, and a set of conversion parameters related to nest decay rates, are increasingly used. Most surveys use the standing crop nest count (SCNC) method, whereby nests are counted along transects and the estimated nest density is converted into chimpanzee density using an often non-local nest decay rate. The use of non-local decay rate is thought to introduce substantial bias to ape population estimates given that nest decay rates vary with location, season, rainfall, nest shape, and tree species used. SCNC method has previously been applied in Mbam-Djerem National Park (MDNP) in Cameroon, for chimpanzee surveys using a non-local nest decay rate. This current study aimed to measure a local nest decay rate for MDNP and implications for chimpanzee population estimates in the MDNP. The mean nest decay rate estimated using a logistic regression analysis was 127 [95% CI (100–160)] days. Moreover, the results suggested that rainfall strongly influenced the nest decay rate over the early stage of the lifetime of the nests. The study confirms that estimates of chimpanzee density and abundance using non-local decay rates should be treated with caution. Our research emphasized the importance of using local nest decay rates and other survey methods which do not depend on decay rates to obtain more accurate estimates of chimpanzee densities in order to inform conservation strategies of these great apes in MDNP.
    • Assessment of mammal reproduction for hunting sustainability through community-based sampling of species in the wild

      Mayor, Pedro; El Bizri Hani; Bodmer Richard E.; Bowler, Mark (2017)
      ...researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, so these assessments often rely on classic reproductive rates calculated mostly from studies of captive animals conducted 30 years ago. The result is a flaw in almost 50% of studies, which hampers management decision making....
    • Assisted reproductive technologies in captive rhinoceroses

      Pennington, Parker M.; Durrant, Barbara S. (2019)
      Survival of the five remaining rhinoceros species is threatened. Four of the five species are in managed collections, but captive populations are not self-sustaining and low reproductive rates make population growth slow. Slow population growth, coupled with behavioural incompatibilities, acyclicity, low genetic diversity, and disease susceptibility, creates the need for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) to maintain genetic diversity while bolstering population numbers. Both published and unpublished data are included in this review of ARTs, to facilitate understanding consistencies and variations between and within each rhinoceros species. Progress has been made to address species-specific characteristics of reproductive physiology in rhinoceroses. This review outlines the ARTs that have been performed and identifies areas in need of research. In vivo technologies have resulted in live calves by artificial insemination, created genetic reservoirs through semen collection, and provided new avenues of gamete retrieval via ovum pickup. In vitro technologies have enabled genetic rescue post mortem and support early stage embryo production through oocyte maturation and fertilisation. As conservation efforts focus on rhinoceroses, improvement of existing techniques and development of new technologies will allow for a broader application of successful rhinoceros ARTs.
    • Attitudes towards returning wolves (Canis lupus) in Germany: Exposure, information sources and trust matter

      Arbieu, Ugo; Mehring, Marion; Bunnefeld, Nils; Kaczensky, Petra; Reinhardt, Ilka; Ansorge, Hermann; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Glikman, Jenny A.; Kluth, Gesa; Nowak, Carsten; et al. (2019)
      Understanding how exposure and information affect public attitudes towards returning large carnivores in Europe is critical for human-carnivore coexistence, especially for developing efficient and de-escalating communication strategies....
    • Augmentation of the Puaiohi population through captive propagation and release on the Alakai Plateau, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

      Switzer, Richard A.; Lieberman, Alan A.; Nelson, J.; Crampton, L.; Soorae, P.S. (IUCN Species Survival Commission, Re-introduction Specialist Group and Abu Dhabi, AE : Environment Agency-Abu DhabiGland, Switzerland, 2013)
      The Puaiohi, also known as the small Kauai thrush, is listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN/BirdLife and Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It is one of only two remaining Hawaiian species in the genus Myadestes, formerly comprising six Hawaiian species....
    • Bear Sensory Systems

      Sergiel, Agnieszka; Van Horn, Russell C.; Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (Springer International PublishingCham, 2019)
      The world’s bears evolved and diverged beginning about 20-25 million years ago. The surviving eight bear species live in diverse habitats whose physical characteristics create challenges that have influenced the evolution of bears’ sensory systems: vision, hearing, smell, touch, and taste....
    • Bears within the human landscape: Cultural and demographic factors influencing the use of bear parts in Cambodia and Laos

      Davis, Elizabeth Oneita; Glikman, Jenny A.; Nevin, Owen; Convery, Ian; Davis, Peter (BoydellNewcastle, UK, 2019)
      Bears in Southeast Asia are declining across their range, primarily due to demand for their products, compounded by habitat loss. Although this decline has been observed in Cambodia and Laos, little research had been performed into in-country demand for bear products....
    • Behavior coding and ethogram of Guizhou snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi)

      Cui, Duoying; Niu, K.; Tan, Chia L.; Yang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yang, Y. (2014)
      We observed the behavior processes and habitats of free-ranging Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve (FNNR) and captive Guizhousnub-nosed monkeys in Wildlife Rescue Center in FNNR and Beijing Zoo from October 2009 to April 2014…. We found that there were some behavioral differences among Guizhou snub-nosed monkey, Sichuan snub-nosed monkey and Yunnan snub-nosed monkey in individual and social behaviors, and these might be related to the different habitats.
    • Behavioral adaptations of a large carnivore to human activity in an extremely arid landscape

      Barocas, Adi; Hefner R.; Ucko M.; Merkle J. A.; Geffen Eli (2018)
      Abstract Driven by the availability of food subsidies and landscape transformation, large carnivore populations are increasingly inhabiting the vicinity of humans. To persist in human proximity, while avoiding conflict and mortality, they must make adjustments in their spatial behavior....
    • Betsileo woolly lemur (Avahi betsileo). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Patel, E. (2020)
      The extent of occurrence of this species covers less than 1,470 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
    • Biosphere reserve to transshipment Port: Travesty for Jamaica's Goat Islands.

      Grant, Tandora D. (2014)
      You know what is a huge bummer? Being a part of an amazing conservation success story to recover a species, only to reach the point where all those efforts appear lost. I know I’m not the only conservationist who has fought similar battles — many losing, but occasionally winning. I still have hope that reason will prevail and my colleagues and I can make further progress toward true recovery and the long-term goals of sustainability. The Jamaican Iguana (Cyclura collei) is a really big lizard that was thought to have been extinct for 40-something years when a small number of individuals were found in the rugged limestone interior of the Hellshire Hills on the southern coast of Jamaica…
    • Black lemur (Eulemur macaco). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Andriantsimanarilafy, R.R; Borgerson, C.; Clarke, T; Colquhoun, I.C; Cotton, A; Donati, G; Eppley, Timothy M.; Heriniaina, R; Irwin, M; Johnson, S; et al. (2020)
      The range of the species is severely fragmented and remaining areas of forest are under anthropogenic pressure (Mittermeier et al. 2010, Tinsman et al. 2019). Given this, and that the overall population size is suspected to be in decline at a rate of >50% over three generations, the current assessment lists Eulemur macaco as Endangered.
    • Blood Lead Levels in Captive Giant Pandas

      Wintle, Nathan J. P.; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S.; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hemin (2018)
      Fifteen giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Chinese Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Bifengxia, Sichuan, China were analyzed for blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) during the 2017 breeding season. Thirteen of the 15 bears showed Pb-B below the method detection limit (MDL) of 3.3 µg/dL....
    • Body size, not phylogenetic relationship or residency, drives interspecific dominance in a little pocket mouse community

      Chock, Rachel Y.; Shier, Debra M.; Grether, Gregory F. (2018)
      The role of interspecific aggression in structuring ecological communities can be important to consider when reintroducing endangered species to areas of their historic range that are occupied by competitors. We sought to determine which species is the most serious interference competitor of the endangered Pacific pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris pacificus, and more generally, whether interspecific aggression in rodents is predicted by body size, residency status or phylogenetic relatedness....
    • Bonobo personality traits are heritable and associated with vasopressin receptor gene 1a variation

      Staes, Nicky; Weiss, Alexander; Helsen, Philippe; Korody, Marisa L.; Eens, Marcel; Stevens, Jeroen M. G. (2016)
      Despite being closely related, bonobos and chimpanzees show remarkable behavioral differences, the proximate origins of which remain unknown. This study examined the link between behavioral variation and variation in the vasopressin 1a receptor gene (Avpr1a) in bonobos. Chimpanzees are polymorphic for a ~360bp deletion (DupB), which includes a microsatellite (RS3) in the 5′ promoter region of Avpr1a. In chimpanzees, the DupB deletion has been linked to lower sociability, lower social sensitivity, and higher anxiety. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ on these traits, leading some to believe that the absence of the DupB deletion in bonobos may be partly responsible for these differences, and to the prediction that similar associations between Avpr1a genotypes and personality traits should be present in bonobos. We identified bonobo personality dimensions using behavioral measures (SociabilityB, BoldnessB, OpennessB, ActivityB) and trait ratings (AssertivenessR, ConscientiousnessR, OpennessR, AgreeablenessR, AttentivenessR, ExtraversionR). In the present study we found that all 10 dimensions have nonzero heritabilities, indicating there is a genetic basis to personality, and that bonobos homozygous for shorter RS3 alleles were lower in AttentivenessR and higher in OpennessB. These results suggest that variations in Avpr1a genotypes explain both within and between species differences in personality traits of bonobos and chimpanzees.
    • Bovidae, Antilocapridae, Giraffidae, Tragulidae, Hippopotamidae

      Jones, Megan E. B.; Gasper, D.J.; Mitchell, E.; Terio, Karen A.; McAloose, Denise; St. Leger, Judy (Academic PressSan Diego, CA, 2018)
    • Brachylophus gau. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020

      Fisher, R.; Hathaway, S.; Gray, K.; Grant, Tandora D. (2020)
      Gau Banded Iguanas are known to occur only on Gau Island, Fiji, and have an estimated extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of 220 km2 . Over 50% of the natural habitat of Gau has been degraded or converted due to illegal forest burning practices and free-roaming domestic goat competitors. The iguana population is suspected to have declined correspondingly during the last 30–45 years (three generations). There is continuing predation pressure on iguanas from invasive alien rats, feral cats, and free-roaming domestic pigs. Without conservation intervention, habitat degradation observed during the last 20 years is projected to cause a further 10–20% decline over the next 10–15 years.
    • Building conservation capacity in Southeast Asia: Outcomes of the ATBC 2015 Asia-Pacific Chapter meeting conservation education symposium

      Souter, Nicholas J.; Hughes, Alice C.; Savini, Tommaso; Rao, Madhu; Goodale, Eben; Nice, Amy Van; Huang, Natalia; Liu, Jing-Xin; Hunt, Matt P.; O'Connor, David; et al. (2017)
      The “Building Capacity for Conservation in Southeast Asia” symposium was held at the 2015 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Asia-Pacific Chapter meeting. The range of programs discussed fell into three categories: career development, project-specific activities and outreach, and delivering conservation information to diverse audiences....