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dc.contributor.authorSacco, Alexandra J.
dc.contributor.authorMayhew, Jessica A.
dc.contributor.authorWatsa, Mrinalini
dc.contributor.authorErkenswick, Gideon
dc.contributor.authorBinder, April K.
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-25T17:41:18Z
dc.date.available2020-05-25T17:41:18Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.eissn2056-3132
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s40850-020-00051-9
dc.identifier.pii51
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12634/236
dc.description.abstractBackground: Non-invasive biomarkers can facilitate health assessments in wild primate populations by reducing the need for direct access to animals. Neopterin is a biomarker that is a product of the cell-mediated immune response, with high levels being indicative of poor survival expectations in some cases. The measurement of urinary neopterin concentration (UNC) has been validated as a method for monitoring cell-mediated immune system activation in multiple catarrhine species, but to date there is no study testing its utility in the urine of platyrrhine species. In this study, we collected urine samples across three platyrrhine families including small captive populations of Leontopithecus rosalia and Pithecia pithecia, and larger wild populations of Leontocebus weddelli, Saguinus imperator, Alouatta seniculus, and Plecturocebus toppini, to evaluate a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of urinary neopterin in platyrrhines. Results: Our results revealed measured UNC fell within the sensitivity range of the assay in all urine samples collected from captive and wild platyrrhine study species via commercial ELISA, and results from several dilutions met expectations. We found significant differences in the mean UNC across all study species. Most notably, we observed higher UNC in the wild population of L. weddelli which is known to have two filarial nematode infections compared to S. imperator, which only have one. Conclusion: Our study confirms that neopterin is measurable via commercial ELISA in urine collected from captive and wild individuals of six genera of platyrrhines across three different families. These findings promote the future utility of UNC as a promising biomarker for field primatologists conducting research in Latin America to non-invasively evaluate cell-mediated immune system activation from urine. Keywords: Neopterin, Health monitoring, Platyrrhines, Immune function, Biomarker
dc.description.sponsorshipCentral Washington University (CWU) School of Graduate Studies and Researchen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLCen_US
dc.rightsen_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectHEALTHen_US
dc.subjectTAMARINSen_US
dc.subjectSAKISen_US
dc.subjectHOWLER MONKEYSen_US
dc.subjectTITISen_US
dc.subjectIMMUNOLOGYen_US
dc.subjectEXPERIMENTAL METHODSen_US
dc.subjectPERUen_US
dc.titleDetection of neopterin in the urine of captive and wild platyrrhinesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.source.journaltitleBMC Zoologyen_US
dc.source.volume5en_US
dc.source.issue1en_US
dcterms.dateAccepted2020
refterms.dateFOA2020-05-25T17:41:19Z
html.description.abstractBackground: Non-invasive biomarkers can facilitate health assessments in wild primate populations by reducing the need for direct access to animals. Neopterin is a biomarker that is a product of the cell-mediated immune response, with high levels being indicative of poor survival expectations in some cases. The measurement of urinary neopterin concentration (UNC) has been validated as a method for monitoring cell-mediated immune system activation in multiple catarrhine species, but to date there is no study testing its utility in the urine of platyrrhine species. In this study, we collected urine samples across three platyrrhine families including small captive populations of Leontopithecus rosalia and Pithecia pithecia, and larger wild populations of Leontocebus weddelli, Saguinus imperator, Alouatta seniculus, and Plecturocebus toppini, to evaluate a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of urinary neopterin in platyrrhines. Results: Our results revealed measured UNC fell within the sensitivity range of the assay in all urine samples collected from captive and wild platyrrhine study species via commercial ELISA, and results from several dilutions met expectations. We found significant differences in the mean UNC across all study species. Most notably, we observed higher UNC in the wild population of L. weddelli which is known to have two filarial nematode infections compared to S. imperator, which only have one. Conclusion: Our study confirms that neopterin is measurable via commercial ELISA in urine collected from captive and wild individuals of six genera of platyrrhines across three different families. These findings promote the future utility of UNC as a promising biomarker for field primatologists conducting research in Latin America to non-invasively evaluate cell-mediated immune system activation from urine. Keywords: Neopterin, Health monitoring, Platyrrhines, Immune function, Biomarkeren_US


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