• California Condor North American Studbook (Gymnogyps californianus)

      Mace, Michael E. (Diego Zoo GlobalEscondido, CA, 2014)
    • Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise

      Germano, Jennifer M.; Van Zerr, Vanessa E.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Ken E.; Lamberski, Nadine (2014)
      Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense....
    • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance for the advanced imaging of the normal nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Bercier, Marjorie; Alexander, Kate; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W. (2014)
      The objective of this study is to describe computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) for the cross-sectional imaging of the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), to provide reference figures for gross anatomy with corresponding CT and MR images, and to compare the features of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the normal koala with that reported in other domestic species. Advanced imaging can be used to aid in diagnosis, to plan surgical intervention, and to monitor therapeutic responses to diseases of the nasal passages in koalas....
    • Space use as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)

      Hunter, Sally C.; Gusset, Markus; Miller, Lance J.; Somers, Michael J. (2014)
      A clear understanding of space use is required to more fully understand biological requirements of nonhuman animals in zoos, aid the design of exhibits, and maximize the animals' welfare. This study used electivity indexes to assess space use of two packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and the appropriateness of two naturalistic, outdoor enclosures at the San Diego Zoo and Bronx Zoo....
    • Gastrointestinal torsions and intussusception in Northern koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) at San Diego Zoo (1976–2012)

      Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M.; Roesler, Jennifer; Andrus, Chris Hamlin; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W. (2014)
      The recent classification as threatened status of the northern koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) by the Australian Government highlights the importance of the conservation and health management of this iconic Australian marsupial. This case series describes gastrointestinal torsion and intussusception in six northern koalas (three males, three females, 2–11 yr old) at the San Diego Zoo from 1976 to 2012….
    • Esophageal dissection and hematoma associated with obstruction in an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)

      Phair, Kristen A.; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Pye, Geoffrey W.; Pessier, Allan P.; Clippinger, Tracy L. (2014)
      A 42-year-old female Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) developed a sudden onset of excessive salivation and dysphagia. Esophageal obstruction was suspected; possibly related to palm frond ingestion. Esophageal endoscopy revealed a mat of plant material in the distal esophagus....
    • Cerebral Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in a captive African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) in southern California

      Burns, Rachel E.; Bicknese, Elizabeth; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Drew, Clifton P.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Rideout, Bruce (2014)
      A 10-month-old, female African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) hatched and housed at the San Diego Zoo developed neurologic signs and died from a cerebral infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis…. To the authors’ knowledge, this infection has not previously been reported in a bird in the United States and has not been known to be naturally acquired in any species in this region of the world. The source of the infection was not definitively determined but was possibly feeder geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) imported from Southeast Asia where the parasite is endemic.
    • Kinship-based management strategies for captive breeding programs when pedigrees are unknown or uncertain

      Putnam, Andrea S.; Ivy, Jamie A. (2014)
      …Using the demographic parameters of a North American captive population of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), 2 kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies were modeled for their performance in handling pedigrees with varying degrees of parentage uncertainty…. Both kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies significantly outperformed the nonkinship-based strategies.
    • Dermal hemangiosarcoma in a sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps)

      Rivas, Anne E.; Pye, Geoffrey W.; Papendick, Rebecca (2014)
      ….There are published reports of sugar gliders diagnosed with neoplasia, and oncology cases affecting this species are occasionally seen in clinical practice. Based on an extensive literature search, the authors believe this is the first report of a dermal hemangiosarcoma in a sugar glider.
    • Suidae and Tayassuida (wild pigs, peccaries)

      Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Miller, R.E.; Fowler, M.E.; Miller, R.E.; Fowler, M.E. (ElsevierSt. Louis, MO, 2014)
      The families Suidae (swine) and Tayassuidae (peccaries) are nonruminating ungulates belonging to the Suina clade or suborder within the order Artiodactyla…. Ancestors of extant peccaries are thought to have dispersed into the New World from eastern Asia. Currently, three species of peccary range from Southwestern United States to South America.
    • Testicular seminomas in two giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

      Molter, Christine M. (Disney’s Animals, Science, and EnvironmentOrlando, Florida, 2014)
    • Unexpected positive and negative effects of continuing inbreeding in one of the world's most inbred wild animals

      Weiser Emily L.; Grueber, Catherine E.; Kennedy, Euan S.; Jamieson, Ian G. (2015)
      ...The Chatham Island black robin represents a case of extreme inbreeding following two severe population bottlenecks…. The positive and negative effects we found emphasize that continuing inbreeding can have important effects on individual fitness, even in populations that are already highly inbred....
    • Intensity of play behavior as a potential measure of welfare: A novel method for quantifying the integrated intensity of behavior in African elephants

      Vicino, Greg A.; Marcacci, Emily S. (2015)
      This study was developed to test an equation that quantified the intensity and duration of play bouts in a particularly gregarious mammal, African elephants (Loxodonta africana ) housed at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA.… Here we present the methods and technique used to calculate a standardized Integrated Play Index (IPI) that has potential for use in other socially living species that are known to exhibit play behavior
    • Toll-like receptor diversity in 10 threatened bird species: relationship with microsatellite heterozygosity

      Grueber, Catherine E.; Knafler, Gabrielle J.; King, Tania M.; Senior, Alistair M.; Grosser, Stefanie; Robertson, Bruce; Weston, Kerry A.; Brekke, Patricia; Harris, Christian L. W.; Jamieson, Ian G. (2015)
    • Impacts of early viability selection on management of inbreeding and genetic diversity in conservation

      Grueber, Catherine E.; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Ivy, Jamie A.; Belov, Katherine (2015)
      Maintaining genetic diversity is a crucial goal of intensive management of threatened species, particularly for those populations that act as sources for translocation or re‐introduction programmes. Most captive genetic management is based on pedigrees and a neutral theory of inheritance, an assumption that may be violated by selective forces operating in captivity. Here, we explore the conservation consequences of early viability selection: differential offspring survival that occurs prior to management or research observations, such as embryo deaths in utero....
    • Immunomics of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Abts, Kendra C.; Ivy, Jamie A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew (2015)
      The study of the koala transcriptome has the potential to advance our understanding of its immunome—immunological reaction of a given host to foreign antigens—and to help combat infectious diseases (e.g., chlamydiosis) that impede ongoing conservation efforts….. Our efforts have produced full-length sequences for potentially important immune genes in koala, which should serve as targets for future investigations that aim to conserve koala populations.
    • Genomic insights into a contagious cancer in Tasmanian devils

      Grueber, Catherine E.; Peel, Emma; Gooley, Rebecca; Belov, Katherine (2015)
      The Tasmanian devil faces extinction due to a contagious cancer…. From characterising immune genes and immune responses to studying tumour evolution, we have begun to uncover how a cancer can be ‘caught’ and are using genomic data to manage an insurance population of disease-free devils for the long-term survival of the species.
    • Development of a SNP-based assay for measuring genetic diversity in the Tasmanian devil insurance population

      Wright, Belinda; Morris, Katrina; Grueber, Catherine E.; Willet, Cali E.; Gooley, Rebecca; Hogg, Carolyn J.; O’Meally, Denis; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Wade, Claire; et al. (2015)
      The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) has undergone a recent, drastic population decline due to the highly contagious devil facial tumor disease. The tumor is one of only two naturally occurring transmissible cancers and is almost inevitably fatal. In 2006 a disease-free insurance population was established to ensure that the Tasmanian devil is protected from extinction. The insurance program is dependent upon preserving as much wild genetic diversity as possible to maximize the success of subsequent reintroductions to the wild. Accurate genotypic data is vital to the success of the program to ensure that loss of genetic diversity does not occur in captivity. Until recently, microsatellite markers have been used to study devil population genetics, however as genetic diversity is low in the devil and potentially decreasing in the captive population, a more sensitive genotyping assay is required.