• Giant panda conservation science: how far we have come

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Wei, Fuwen; Wildt, David E.; Kouba, Andrew J.; Zhang, Zejun (The Royal Society, 2009-10-28)
      ...Here we discuss recent advancements in conservation science for giant pandas and suggest that the way forward is more direct application of emerging science to management and policy.
    • Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence

      Scally, Aylwyn; Dutheil, Julien Y.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Jordan, Gregory E.; Goodhead, Ian; Herrero, Javier; Hobolth, Asger; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Mailund, Thomas; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; et al. (2012)
      Gorillas are humans’ closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera....
    • Orangutan Alu quiescence reveals possible source element: support for ancient backseat drivers

      Walker, Jerilyn A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Ullmer, Brygg; Monceaux, Christopher P.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Hubley, Robert; Smit, Arian FA; Batzer, Mark A. (2012)
      Sequence analysis of the orangutan genome revealed that recent proliferative activity of Alu elements has been uncharacteristically quiescent in the Pongo (orangutan) lineage, compared with all previously studied primate genomes. With relatively few young polymorphic insertions, the genomic landscape of the orangutan seemed like the ideal place to search for a driver, or source element, of Alu retrotransposition.
    • Cyclura: Natural History, Husbandry, and Conservation of West Indian Rock Iguanas

      Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Alberts, Allison C. (ElsevierSan Diego, CA, 2012)
      …Cyclura: Natural History, Husbandry, and Conservation of the West Indian Iguanas is the first book to combine the natural history and captive husbandry of these remarkable reptiles, while at the same time outlining the problems researchers and conservationists are battling to save these beautiful, iconic animals of the Caribbean islands…..
    • Patterns of mortality in free-ranging California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

      Rideout, Bruce; Stalis, Ilse H.; Papendick, Rebecca; Pessier, Alan P.; Puschner, B.; Finkelstien, M.E.; Smith, D.R.; Johnson, M.; Mace, Michael E.; Stroud, R.; et al. (2012)
      We document causes of death in free-ranging California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) from the inception of the reintroduction program in 1992 through December 2009 to identify current and historic mortality factors that might interfere with establishment of self-sustaining populations in the wild. A total of 135 deaths occurred from October 1992 (the first post-release death) through December 2009, from a maximum population-at-risk of 352 birds, for a cumulative crude mortality rate of 38%. A definitive cause of death was determined for 76 of the 98 submitted cases, 70%(53/76) of which were attributed to anthropogenic causes. Trash ingestion was the most important mortality factor in nestlings (proportional mortality rate [PMR] 73%; 8/11), while lead toxicosis was the most important factor in juveniles (PMR 26%; 13/50) and adults (PMR 67%; 10/15). These results demonstrate that the leading causes of death at all California Condor release sites are anthropogenic. The mortality factors thought to be important in the decline of the historic California Condor population, particularly lead poisoning, remain the most important documented mortality factors today. Without effective mitigation, these factors can be expected to have the same effects on the sustainability of the wild populations as they have in the past.
    • Serum protein electrophoresis values for free-ranging and zoo-based koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Pye, Geoffrey W.; Ellis, William; FitzGibbon, Sean; Opitz, Brian; Keener, Laura; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Cray, Carolyn (2012)
      In a clinical setting, especially with species of special interest, it is important to use all clinical pathology testing options for general health monitoring and diagnosis. Protein electrophoresis (EPH) has previously been shown to be an important adjunct tool in veterinary medicine. Serum samples from 18 free-ranging and 12 zoo-based koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) were subject to EPH analysis….
    • Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

      McCullough, Sarah A.; Endress, Bryan A. (2012)
      In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment….
    • Attempted Predation by Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) on Preuss's Red Colobus (Procolobus preussi) in the Ebo Forest, Cameroon

      Morgan, Bethan J.; Suh, J.N.; Abwe, Ekwoge E. (2012)
      We describe the first observation of a predation attempt by Nigerian-Cameroon chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) on Preuss’s red colobus (Procolobus preussi) in the Ebo forest, Cameroon. The activity, which was observed for 15 min, primarily involved 1 chimpanzee and 1 red colobus individual, with a further 2 chimpanzees observing the event....
    • Response to comment on "Impacts of the cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification"

      Murphy, W.J.; Janecka, J.E.; Stadler, T.; Eizirik, E.; Ryder, Oliver A. (2012)
      Bininda-Emonds and Purvis reanalyzed our mammalian phylogenetic supermatrix and claim that our results are not significantly different from their delayed-rise hypothesis. We show that our divergence times are ~11 million years later for placental inter- and intraordinal divergences—consistent with a post–Cretaceous-Paleogene (KPg) radiation of most modern mammalian orders—and find no support for the early Eocene delayed-rise hypothesis.
    • Notes from the field: A primatologist's point of view

      Morgan, Bethan J. (2012)
      What's a regular day in the life of a field primatologist? Working in the tropics is perceived as difficult and dangerous, with scientific discoveries only part of the everyday drama of studying primates....
    • California condor studbook

      Mace, Michael E. (San Diego Zoo GlobalSan Diego: San, 2012)
    • Effects of season and social interaction on fecal testosterone metabolites in wild male giant pandas: implications for energetics and mating strategies

      Nie, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Ze-Jun; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Wei, Fu-Wei (2012)
      In the first-ever study of reproductive endocrinology in wild male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we provide new insights into the reproductive ecology of the species. We tracked and observed pandas in Foping Nature Reserve of the Qinling Mountains for 3 years, collecting fecal samples for testosterone metabolite analysis and data on reproductive activity....
    • Seed dispersal by a captive corvid: the role of the ‘Alal? (Corvus hawaiiensis) in shaping Hawai‘i's plant communities

      Culliney, Susan; Pejchar, Liba; Switzer, Richard A.; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana (2012)
      ...The endangered ‘Alalā (Corvus hawaiiensis), the largest remaining species of native Hawaiian forest bird, was once common in mesic and dry forests on the Big Island of Hawai‘i, but today it exists solely in captivity. Prior to its extinction in the wild, the ‘Alalā may have helped to establish and maintain native Hawaiian forest communities by dispersing seeds of a wide variety of native plants....
    • Quantitative indirect ELISA-based method for the measurement of serum IgG in springbok calves

      Coons, David M.; Thompson, Kimberly A.; Lamberski, Nadine; Chigerwe, Munashe (2012)
      ...In this study we describe a method for measuring sera immunoglobulin levels using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that can be completed within one working day. The described method is relatively more accurate, precise, and expeditious and less labor intensive than an RID assay. While this protocol was developed for use with springbok sera, it should be easily adaptable for other non-domestic ruminants species for which commercial antibodies are not readily available....
    • A suite of microsatellite markers optimized for amplification of DNA from addax (Addax nasomaculatus) blood preserved on FTA cards: Microsatellites for addax on FTA cards

      Heim, Brett C.; Ivy, Jamie A.; Latch, Emily K. (2012)
      The addax (Addax nasomaculatus) is a critically endangered antelope that is currently maintained in zoos through regional, conservation breeding programs. As for many captive species, incomplete pedigree data currently impedes the ability of addax breeding programs to confidently manage the genetics of captive populations and to select appropriate animals for reintroduction. Molecular markers are often used to improve pedigree resolution, thereby improving the long‐term effectiveness of genetic management....
    • Society, demography and genetic structure in the spotted hyena.

      Holekamp, Kay E.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Strelioff, Christopher C.; Van Horn, Russell C.; Watts, Heather E. (2012)
      Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are large mammalian carnivores, but their societies, called ‘clans’, resemble those of such cercopithecine primates as baboons and macaques with respect to their size, hierarchical structure, and frequency of social interaction among both kin and unrelated group‐mates. However, in contrast to cercopithecine primates, spotted hyenas regularly hunt antelope and compete with group‐mates for access to kills, which are extremely rich food sources, but also rare and ephemeral....
    • The roles of competition and environmental heterogeneity in the maintenance of behavioral variation and covariation

      Dochtermann, Ned A.; Jenkins, Stephen H.; Swartz, Maryke J.; Hargett, Allison C. (2012)
      Many models of selection predict that populations will lose variation in traits that affect fitness. Nonetheless, phenotypic variation is commonly observed in natural populations. We tested the influences of competition and spatial heterogeneity on behavioral variation within and among populations of Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) and tested for the differential expression of trait correlations....
    • Inbreeding, immune defence and ectoparasite load in different mockingbird populations and species in the Galápagos Islands

      Hoeck, Paquita E. A.; Keller, Lukas F. (2012)
      ...Using 26 microsatellite loci and genetic data from museum specimens and contemporary samples, we calculated short‐term and long‐term inbreeding in 13 different mockingbird populations covering the range of all 4 species in the Galápagos Islands and compared them with three different measures of innate immunity and ectoparasite load. We found no significant effect of either measure of inbreeding on natural antibody or complement enzyme titres, heterophil‐lymphocyte ratio or feather louse abundance....
    • Do invasive rodents impact endangered insular iguana populations?

      Hayes, William K.; Iverson, John B.; Knapp, Charles R.; Carter, Ronald L. (2012)
      Ample evidence confirms that large invasive mammalian competitors and predators can devastate endangered insular iguana populations. However, the impact of invasive rodents, particularly rats (Rattus rattus), has remained elusive....
    • Recent decline in suitable environmental conditions for African great apes

      Junker, Jessica; Blake, Stephen; Boesch, Christophe; Campbell, Geneviève; Toit, Louwrens du; Duvall, Chris; Ekobo, Atanga; Etoga, Gilles; Galat-Luong, Anh; Gamys, Joel; et al. (2012)
      To predict the distribution of suitable environmental conditions (SEC) for eight African great ape taxa for a first time period, the 1990s and then project it to a second time period, the 2000s; to assess the relative importance of factors influencing SEC distribution and to estimate rates of SEC loss, isolation and fragmentation over the last two decades....