• Developmental milestones among African elephant calves on their first day of life

      Bercovitch, Fred B.; Andrews, Jeff; (2010)
      ...We show that calves born in a zoo stand and walk on their own for the first time at the same age as those born in the wild. Calves born in the zoo take a little longer until first successful nursing, but the difference in age between wild and zoo is not statistically significant....
    • Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus

      Howard, Lauren L.; Schaftenaar, Willem (ElsevierSt. Louis, MO, 2019)
    • Elephant training in zoos

      Vicino, Greg A.; Melfi, Vicky A.; Dorey, Nicole R.; Ward, Samantha J. (Wiley-BlackwellHoboken, NJ, 2020)
    • Elephants of south-east Angola in war and peace: their decline, re-colonization and recent status: Elephants in war and peace in SE Angola

      Chase, Michael J.; Griffin, Curtice R. (2011)
      ...the full impact of the civil war on elephants is uncertain because there are no reliable estimates of Angolan elephant populations. Following the end of the civil war in 2002, our three aerial surveys of Luiana PR indicated that elephant numbers are increasing rapidly, from 366 in January 2004 to 1827 in November 2005, and expanding their range in the Reserve....
    • Elephants, ivory, and trade

      Wasser, Samuel; Poole, Joyce; Lee, Phyllis; Lindsay, Keith; Dobson, Andrew; Hart, John; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Wittemyer, George; Granli, Petter; Morgan, Bethan J.; et al. (2010)
      ...Tanzania and Zambia (1 5, 1 6) are exploit- ing this restricted moratorium in their peti- tions. Approval requires demonstration that their elephant populations are secure, law enforcement is effective, and sales will not be detrimental to elephants....
    • Estimating daily walking distance of captive African elephants using an accelerometer

      Rothwell, E. S.; Bercovitch, Fred B.; Andrews, Jeff R. M.; Anderson, Matthew J. (2011)
      Two central concerns for elephant husbandry and management are whether zoological enclosures are appropriately sized and the degree to which naturalistic exercise and activity are observed in such enclosures. In order to address these issues, accurate data on the daily walking distance of elephants both in situ and ex situ are necessary. We used an accelerometer, a pedometer that measures step count and activity level, to estimate walking distance in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the San Diego Zoo's Wild Animal Park….
    • Genetic connectivity across marginal habitats: the elephants of the Namib Desert

      Ishida Yasuko; Van Coeverden de Groot Peter J.; Leggett Keith E. A.; Putnam, Andrea S.; Fox Virginia E.; Lai Jesse; Boag Peter T.; Georgiadis Nicholas J.; Roca Alfred L. (2016)
      Locally isolated populations in marginal habitats may be genetically distinctive and of heightened conservation concern. Elephants inhabiting the Namib Desert have been reported to show distinctive behavioral and phenotypic adaptations in that severely arid environment. The genetic distinctiveness of Namibian desert elephants relative to other African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana ) populations has not been established. To investigate the genetic structure of elephants in Namibia, we determined the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences and genotyped 17 microsatellite loci in desert elephants (n = 8) from the Hoanib River catchment and the Hoarusib River catchment. We compared these to the genotypes of elephants (n = 77) from other localities in Namibia. The mtDNA haplotype sequences and frequencies among desert elephants were similar to those of elephants in Etosha National Park, the Huab River catchment, the Ugab River catchment, and central Kunene, although the geographically distant Caprivi Strip had different mtDNA haplotypes. Likewise, analysis of the microsatellite genotypes of desert‐dwelling elephants revealed that they were not genetically distinctive from Etosha elephants, and there was no evidence for isolation by distance across the Etosha region. These results, and a review of the historical record, suggest that a high learning capacity and long‐distance migrations allowed Namibian elephants to regularly shift their ranges to survive in the face of high variability in climate and in hunting pressure.
    • Genome-wide characterization of centromeric satellites from multiple mammalian genomes

      Alkan, C.; Cardone, M. F.; Catacchio, C. R.; Antonacci, F.; O'Brien, S. J.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Purgato, S.; Zoli, M.; Della Valle, G.; Eichler, E. E.; et al. (2011)
      ...We analyzed genome datasets from six species of mammals representing the diversity of the mammalian lineage, namely, horse, dog, elephant, armadillo, opossum, and platypus. We define candidate monomer satellite repeats and demonstrate centromeric localization for five of the six genomes....
    • Intensity of play behavior as a potential measure of welfare: A novel method for quantifying the integrated intensity of behavior in African elephants

      Vicino, Greg A.; Marcacci, Emily S. (2015)
      This study was developed to test an equation that quantified the intensity and duration of play bouts in a particularly gregarious mammal, African elephants (Loxodonta africana ) housed at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA.… Here we present the methods and technique used to calculate a standardized Integrated Play Index (IPI) that has potential for use in other socially living species that are known to exhibit play behavior
    • Laparoscopic vasectomy in african savannah elephant (loxodonta africana); surgical technique and results

      Marais, Hendrik J; Hendrickson, Dean A; Stetter, Mark; Zuba, Jeffery R.; Penning, Mark; Siegal-Willott, Jess; Hardy, Christine (2013)
      Several small, enclosed reserves in southern Africa are experiencing significant elephant population growth, which has resulted in associated environmental damage and changes in biodiversity. Although several techniques exist to control elephant populations, e.g., culling, relocation, and immunocontraception, the technique of laparoscopic vasectomy of free-ranging bull elephants was investigated....
    • Noninvasive sampling for detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus and genomic DNA in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants

      Jeffrey, Alison; Evans, Tierra Smiley; Molter, Christine M.; Howard, Lauren L.; Ling, Paul; Goldstein, Tracey; Gilardi, Kirsten (2020)
      Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) threatens Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) population sustainability in North America…. To evaluate noninvasive sample collection options, paired invasively collected (blood, trunk wash and oral swabs), and noninvasively collected (chewed plant and fecal) samples were compared over 6 wk from 9 Asian elephants and 12 African elephants….
    • Social learning in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana africana)

      Greco, Brian J.; Brown, Tracey K.; Andrews, Jeff R. M.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Caine, Nancy G. (2013)
      …Social learning is assumed to be important for elephants, but evidence in support of that claim is mostly anecdotal. Using a herd of six adult female African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) at the San Diego Zoo’s Safari Park, we evaluated whether viewing a conspecific’s interactions facilitated learning of a novel task….
    • Survey of geriatric elephant medical care, nutrition, husbandry, and welfare

      Greene, Whitney; Brenner, Deena J. (2020)
      Improvements in husbandry, veterinary care, and nutrition have led to increased longevity of animals in human care, including elephants. The goal of this study was to collect and synthesize information pertaining to geriatric elephant medicine, management, husbandry, and nutrition…..
    • The effects of GPS collars on African elephant (Loxodonta africana) behavior at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park

      Horback, Kristina Marie; Miller, Lance J.; Andrews, Jeffrey; Kuczaj, Stanley Abraham; Anderson, Matthew J. (2012)
      The use of tracking devices (e.g., VHF radio collars, GPS collars, ear transmitters) enables researchers to assess activity budgets, species-specific movement patterns, effects of environmental enrichment, and exercise levels in zoo animals….The present study examined solitary and social behavior rates, as well as overall activity budgets, in eight African elephants living at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, Escondido, CA, USA....
    • The Elephant Welfare Initiative: a model for advancing evidence-based zoo animal welfare monitoring, assessment and enhancement

      Meehan, C.; Greco, B.; Lynn, B.; Morfeld, K.; Vicino, Greg A.; Orban, D.; Gorsuch, C.; Quick, M.; Ripple, L.; Fournier, K.; et al. (2019)
      The Elephant Welfare Initiative (EWI) is an effort supported by a community of member zoos with the common goal of advancing evidence-based elephant-care practices that enhance welfare. The idea for the EWI came about following the completion of a large-scale North American elephant welfare study, which demonstrated that daily practices, such as social management, enrichment and exercise, play a critical role in improving the welfare of elephants in zoos....
    • Twenty-four hour activity levels and walking rates of African elephants in a zoological setting

      Miller, Lance J.; Andrews, Jeff; Anderson, Mathew J.; (Houston, TX, 2010)
      …While there are many questions that need to be addressed surrounding the management of elephants, a first step is to examine the daily activity levels and walking rates of elephants within these facilities. The current study examined these questions for African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the San Diego Zoo's Wild Animal Park....
    • Validating methods to determine walking rates of elephants within a zoological institution

      Miller, Lance J.; Andrews, J; Anderson, Matthew J. (2012)
      ...The purpose of the current research was to validate methods for examining the walking rates of elephants in a zoological facility. This included testing GPS units, examining walking rates of eight elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park using collars and conducting trials on a subset of elephants wearing both a collar and anklet outfitted with GPS devices to determine reliability....
    • Vocalizations and associated behaviors of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in captivity

      Berg, Judith Kay; (1983)
      This analysis presents the physical characteristics of the vocalizations of the African elephant and describes the associated behavioral contexts of the elephant's communicative system. One male and 8 female African elephants were systematically observed in a relatively large captive environment....