• Altitudinal movements of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) in Fanjingshang National Nature Reserve, China: Implications for conservation management of a flagship species

      Niu, K.; Tan, C.L.; Yang, Y.; (2010)
      Primate movements can include a substantial altitudinal component, depending on the complexity of the landscape and the distribution of the inherent vegetation zones. We investigated altitudinal movements of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) at Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, China. The monkeys ranged at elevations between 1,350 and 1,870 m with an overall mean of 1,660 m….
    • Appendix 4: Annotated bibliography of books, journals, and web sites on captive management.

      Kenyon Barboza, K.; Coates, Linda L.; Kleiman, Devra G. (University of Chicago Press, 2010)
      ...Wild Mammals in Captivity presents the most current thinking and practice in the care and management of wild mammals in zoos and other institutions. In one comprehensive volume, the editors have gathered the most current information from studies of animal behavior; advances in captive breeding; research in physiology, genetics, and nutrition; and new thinking in animal management and welfare.....
    • Assessing potential impacts of solar power facilities on wildlife utilizing animal behavior research

      Chock, Rachel Y.; Clucas, B.; Peterson, E.K.; Blackwell, B.F.; Blumstein, D.T.; Church, K.; Fernández-Juricic, E.; Francescoli, G.; Greggor, A.L.; Kemp, P.; et al. (Virtual, 2021)
      Utility-scale solar power is a rapidly expanding renewable energy source with great potential to help meet increasing global energy demands. Solar facilities have large footprints across previously undeveloped habitat, particularly the American Southwest. Despite the scale of this industry, research is scarce on how construction and operation of facilities affect wildlife. We conducted a research-prioritization process to identify key questions to better understand how wildlife is affected by solar facilities and how behavioral data can be used to mitigate negative impacts. Behavioral responses are often the most visible signs of detrimental effects, as behavioral shifts are usually an animal’s first response to environmental change. We asked professionals in the fields of ecology, conservation, and energy to identify important research questions, then held a workshop to reduce and clarify these questions. The priority research areas that emerged included animal perception of solar facilities, movement, habitat use, and interspecific interactions.
    • Behavioral diversity as a potential indicator of positive animal welfare

      Miller, Lance J.; Vicino, Greg A.; Sheftel, Jessica; Lauderdale, Lisa K. (2020)
      Modern day zoos and aquariums continuously assess the welfare of their animals and use evidence to make informed management decisions. Historically, many of the indicators of animal welfare used to assess the collection are negative indicators of welfare, such as stereotypic behavior. However, a lack of negative indicators of animal welfare does not demonstrate that an individual animal is thriving. There is a need for validated measures of positive animal welfare and there is a growing body of evidence that supports the use of behavioral diversity as a positive indicator of welfare. This includes an inverse relationship with stereotypic behavior as well as fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and is typically higher in situations thought to promote positive welfare. This review article highlights previous research on behavioral diversity as a potential positive indicator of welfare. Details are provided on how to calculate behavioral diversity and how to use it when evaluating animal welfare. Finally, the review will indicate how behavioral diversity can be used to inform an evidence-based management approach to animal care and welfare.
    • Beyond masking: Endangered Stephen's kangaroo rats respond to traffic noise with footdrumming

      Shier, Debra M.; Lea, Amanda J.; Owen, Megan A. (2012)
      ... Roads and road margins on and off reserves serve as dispersal corridors and refugia for SKR and other semifossorial taxa; these areas may therefore function as ecological traps if anthropogenic roadway noise negatively affects population persistence.
    • Climate change and the koala Phascolarctos cinereus: water and energy

      Ellis, William A.H.; Melzer, A.; Clifton, I.; Carrick, F.; (2010)
      We studied two groups of koalas during a drought in central Queensland to investigate potential impacts of climatic variability on the physiology and behaviour of this species. The tree use, water turnover, field metabolic rate and diet of koalas during autumn and spring were compared to a similar study of koalas in summer and winter, also in central Queensland, to generate a seasonal picture of the response of koalas to climatic variation....
    • Co-designing behavior change interventions to conserve biodiversity

      Bowie, Matthew J.; Dietrich, Timo; Cassey, Phillip; Veríssimo, Diogo (2020)
      Many threats to biodiversity are the result of human actions, which means that changing human behavior can positively alter the trajectory of our current biodiversity crisis. While there is an increasing number of behavior change interventions being implemented in biodiversity conservation, their design is rarely informed by the people they try to influence, thereby lowering the probability of success. Building successful interventions requires substantial audience research, but this can be challenging for conservation projects with perennially limited time and resources. Here, we critically discuss co-design as a useful and effective approach for gathering audience insights relatively quickly, allowing conservation practitioners to integrate end-user voices when they would otherwise be excluded from intervention design. Specifically, we present a seven-step co-design process, providing an outline and guidance for how to generate more user-centric intervention ideas and transform them into feasible prototype interventions. Further, we show how we applied this seven-step process with coffee consumers in a sustainable conservation context. This study outlines contributions that showcase the value of user-centered design approaches to behavior change interventions for biodiversity conservation.
    • Conservation and animal behavior

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Breed, Michael D.; Moore, Janice (Academic Press, 2010)
    • Conservation behaviour

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Mills, D.S.; Marchant-Forde, J.N.; McGreevy, P.D.; Morton, D.B.; Nicol, C.J.; Phillips, C.J.C.; Sandoe, P.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (CABICambridge, MA, 2010)
    • Conspecific attraction

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Mills, D.S.; Marchant-Forde, J.N.; McGreevy, P.D.; Morton, D.B.; Nicol, C.J.; Phillips, C.J.C.; Sandoe, P.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (CABICambridge, MA, 2010)
    • Critically endangered

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Mills, D.S.; Marchant-Forde, J.N.; McGreevy, P.D.; Morton, D.B.; Nicol, C.J.; Phillips, C.J.C.; Sandoe, P.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (CABICambridge, MA, 2010)
    • Ecological determinants of herd size in the Thornicroft’s giraffe of Zambia: Giraffe herd size in Zambia

      Bercovitch, Fred B.; Berry, Philip S.M.; (2010)
      Given that giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) live in an extremely flexible social system, and that breeding is nonseasonal, they are an ideal species for examining how ecological variables contribute to fluctuations in herd size. We present an analysis of 34 years of data on a population of Thornicroft’s giraffe (G. c. thornicrofti Lydekker 1911) that reveal how herd size changes with season and habitat....
    • Endangered species

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Mills, D.S.; Marchant-Forde, J.N.; McGreevy, P.D.; Morton, D.B.; Nicol, C.J.; Phillips, C.J.C.; Sandoe, P.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (CABICambridge, MA, 2010)
    • Evaluating potential effects of solar power facilities on wildlife from an animal behavior perspective

      Chock, Rachel Y.; Clucas, Barbara; Peterson, Elizabeth K.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Church, Kathleen; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Francescoli, Gabriel; Greggor, Alison L.; Kemp, Paul; et al. (2021)
      Solar power is a renewable energy source with great potential to help meet increasing global energy demands and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. However, research is scarce on how solar facilities affect wildlife. With input from professionals in ecology, conservation, and energy, we conducted a research-prioritization process and identified key questions needed to better understand impacts of solar facilities on wildlife. We focused on animal behavior, which can be used to identify population responses before mortality or other fitness consequences are documented. Behavioral studies can also offer approaches to understand the mechanisms leading to negative interactions (e.g., collision, singeing, avoidance) and provide insight into mitigating effects. Here, we review how behavioral responses to solar facilities, including perception, movement, habitat use, and interspecific interactions are priority research areas. Addressing these themes will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of solar power on wildlife and guide future mitigation.
    • Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; McShea, William M.; Wildt, David; Hull, Vanessa; Zhang, Jindong; Owen, Megan A.; Zhang, Zejun; Dvornicky-Raymond, Zachary; Valitutto, Marc; Li, Dihua; et al. (Cambridge University PressCambridge, 2020)
      This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
    • Giant panda scent-marking strategies in the wild: role of season, sex and marking surface

      Nie, Yonggang; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Zhang, Zejun; Hu, Yibo; Ma, Yisheng; Wei, Fuwen (2012)
      ...We studied scent-marking patterns in wild giant pandas in the Foping Nature Reserve by surveying areas containing a high density of scent posts. Pandas did not deploy scent marks randomly in this environment, but targeted trees with specific characteristics that promoted signal persistence, range and/or likelihood of detection....
    • Giant pandas attend to androgen-related variation in male bleats

      Charlton, Benjamin D.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Zhihe, Zhang; Snyder, Rebecca J. (2012)
      Although androgen-dependant traits are predicted to signal overall male quality, no study has examined the response of a nonhuman animal to variation in a known acoustic cue to male androgen levels (steroid hormones that are key drivers of male sexual behaviour). Here, we use a single-speaker approach to present male and female giant pandas with re-synthesised male bleats representing callers with high and low androgen levels. Our results revealed that male and female giant pandas had significantly greater-looking responses, spent more time pacing, and were faster to respond to playbacks of bleats simulating high androgen males. When we analysed the sexes separately, a slightly different response pattern was revealed: whereas males and females still had significantly greater-looking responses and were faster to respond to bleats simulating high androgen males, only male giant pandas tended to spend more time pacing. These findings suggest that vocal cues to male androgen levels are functionally relevant to male and female giant pandas during the breeding season, and constitute the first demonstration that a nonhuman animal could be using a vocal signal to assess male hormonal state. We go on to discuss the ecological relevance of signalling androgen levels in this species’ sexual communication and the possible application of our results to conservation breeding.
    • Giant Pandas: Biology, Veterinary Medicine and Management

      Wildt, David E.; Zhang, Anju; Zhang, Hemin; Janssen, Donald L.; Ellis, Susie (Cambridge University Press, 2012)
      The giant panda is one of the world's most recognized animals, but until now the biology of this threatened species has been a mystery....
    • Hunters versus hunted: New perspectives on the energetic costs of survival at the top of the food chain

      Williams, Terrie M.; Jørgensen, Mads Peter-Heide; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bryce, Caleb M. (2020)
      Global biotic and abiotic threats, particularly from pervasive human activities, are progressively pushing large, apex carnivorous mammals into the functional role of mesopredator. Hunters are now becoming the hunted….
    • Impacts of natural history and exhibit factors on carnivore welfare

      Miller, Lance J.; Ivy, Jamie A.; Vicino, Greg A.; Schork, Ivana G. (2019)
      To improve the welfare of nonhuman animals under professional care, zoological institutions are continuously utilizing new methods to identify factors that lead to optimal welfare. Comparative methods have historically been used in the field of evolutionary biology but are increasingly being applied in the field of animal welfare....