• Approaches to management and care of the neonatal nondomestic ruminant

      Wolfe, B.A.; Lamberski, Nadine (2012)
      ...These differences become apparent quickly when the nondomestic neonate requires treatment, and an understanding of the special needs and risks involved can prevent unnecessary problems and losses. The aim of this article is to discuss the unique challenges presented by nondomestic ruminants and approaches to management of neonatal and pediatric cases.
    • Elaeophora in the meninges of a Malayan sambar (Rusa unicolor equina)

      Bernard, Jennifer; Grunenwald, Caroline; Stalis, Ilse H.; Varney, Megan; Zuba, Jeffery R.; Gerhold, Richard (2016)
      An adult nematode was grossly identified in the meninges of a Malayan sambar (Rusa unicolor equina), with numerous microfilariae associated with encephalitis and vasculitis on histopathology. The nematode was confirmed to be Elaeophora schneideri by sequencing a portion of the 18S rRNA gene. Our report highlights the potential for aberrant migration of E. schneideri in exotic deer species and the use of advanced testing to specifically identify this metazoan parasite, avoiding misidentification of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis.
    • Herpesvirus surveillance and discovery in zoo-housed ruminants

      Partin, Teagen G.; Schrenzel, Mark D.; Braun, Josephine; Witte, Carmel L.; Kubiski, Steven V.; Lee, Justin; Rideout, Bruce (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021)
      Gammaherpesvirus infections are ubiquitous in captive and free-ranging ruminants and are associated with a variety of clinical diseases ranging from subclinical or mild inflammatory syndromes to fatal diseases such as malignant catarrhal fever. Gammaherpesvirus infections have been fully characterized in only a few ruminant species, and the overall diversity, host range, and biologic effects of most are not known. This study investigated the presence and host distribution of gammaherpesviruses in ruminant species at two facilities, the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. We tested antemortem (blood, nasal or oropharyngeal swabs) or postmortem (internal organs) samples from 715 healthy or diseased ruminants representing 96 species and subspecies, using a consensus-based herpesvirus PCR for a segment of the DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene. Among the 715 animals tested, 161 (22.5%) were PCR and sequencing positive for herpesvirus, while only 11 (6.83%) of the PCR positive animals showed clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever. Forty-four DPOL genotypes were identified of which only 10 have been reported in GenBank. The data describe viral diversity within species and individuals, identify host ranges of potential new viruses, and address the proclivity and consequences of interspecies transmission during management practices in zoological parks. The discovery of new viruses with wide host ranges and presence of co-infection within individual animals also suggest that the evolutionary processes influencing Gammaherpesvirus diversity are more complex than previously recognized.
    • Retrospective evaluation of the use of parenteral nutrition in hospitalized nondomestic ruminants.

      Mulreany, Lauren M.; Kinney, Matthew E.; Clancy, Meredith M.; Lamberski, Nadine; Werre, Stephen R. (2020)
      Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one method of providing nutrient support to hospitalized, nondomestic ruminants that have a decreased appetite in hospital or have high metabolic demands caused by illness.... All animals included were greater than 6 mo of age. This age criterion was selected to ensure animals had a fully functioning rumen. Eighteen were female (75%) and six (25%) were male. Eight were pregnant at the time of hospitalization, and three were lactating with a nursing calf at their side. Species included southern gerenuk (Litocranius walleri walleri, n = 3), Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii, n = 3), Zambesi lechwe (Kobus leche leche, n = 2), East African sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii, n = 2), western tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus cephalophus, n = 2), eastern bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, n = 2), Transcaspian urial (Ovis orientalis arkal, n = 1), South African greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros strepsiceros, n = 1), Nubian Soemmerring's gazelle (Nanger soemmerringii soemmerringii, n = 1), slender-horned gazelle (Gazella leptoceros, n = 1), Sudan barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia blainei, n = 1), Nile lechwe (Kobus megaceros, n = 1), Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti, n = 1), scimitar horned oryx (Oryx dammah, n = 1), South African springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis marsupialis, n = 1), and yellow-backed duiker (Cephalophus silvicultor, n = 1).