• A novel herpesvirus of the proposed genus chelonivirus from an asymptomatic bowsprit tortoise (Chersina angulata)

      Bicknese, Elizabeth; Childress, April L.; Wellehan, James F. X.; (2010)
      A wild-caught Bowsprit tortoise (Chersina angulata) was received into quarantine and appeared clinically normal. Oral swabs for consensus herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were obtained during routine quarantine, and a novel herpesvirus was identified....
    • A retrospective and prospective study of megaesophagus in the Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) at the San Diego Zoo, California, USA

      Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Pye, Geoffrey W.; Smith, Joseph A.; Papendick, Rebecca; Ivy, Jamie A.; Hamlin-Andrus, Chris (2012)
      At the San Diego Zoo (California, USA), 22 cases of megaesophagus were diagnosed in the parma wallaby (Macropus parma); a prevalence of 21.1%. Parma wallabies often have no clinical signs until severe and chronic dilation of the esophagus is present....
    • Abomasal impaction in captive bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus)

      Gyimesi, Zoltan S.; Burns, Roy B.; Campbell, Mark; Knightly, Felicia; Kramer, Lynn W.; Wack, Raymund F.; Zuba, Jeffery R.; Rings, D. Michael (2011)
      Fatal abomasal impaction, often combined with omasal impaction, was diagnosed in 11 bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) from five different zoologic collections in the United States between 1981 and 2009. Nine of 11 cases occurred in young females (10 mo–7 yr old) and typical clinical signs prior to diagnosis or death included partial or complete anorexia, dehydration, and scant fecal production....
    • AMPHIBIAN DISEASES-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Adult Notophthalmus viridescens in North-Central Alabama, USA

      Bakkegard, K. A.; Pessier, Allan P.; (2010)
      ...We report on a haphazard collection of dead adult Notophthalmus viridescens discovered during a field zoology class trip conducted by KAB in Birmingham, Alabama....
    • Cerebral Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in a captive African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) in southern California

      Burns, Rachel E.; Bicknese, Elizabeth; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Drew, Clifton P.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Rideout, Bruce (2014)
      A 10-month-old, female African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) hatched and housed at the San Diego Zoo developed neurologic signs and died from a cerebral infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis…. To the authors’ knowledge, this infection has not previously been reported in a bird in the United States and has not been known to be naturally acquired in any species in this region of the world. The source of the infection was not definitively determined but was possibly feeder geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) imported from Southeast Asia where the parasite is endemic.
    • Clinical challenge. Renal adenocarcinoma in a spitting cobra

      Belasco-Zeitz, Marianne; Pye, Geoffrey W.; Burns, Rachel E.; Pessier, Allan P. (2013)
      A 16-yr-old, male red spitting cobra (Naja pallida) (weight, 1.9 kg) presented with caudal coelomic swelling…. Blood from a male sibling (weight, 1.35 kg) was collected for comparison purposes and was reported with WBC < 5,000 × 106 cells/μl; uric acid, 6.4 mg/dl; calcium, 14.8 mg/dl; phosphorous, 6.6 mg/dl; total protein, 6.9 g/dl; and globulins, 4.2 g/dl…
    • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance for the advanced imaging of the normal nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Bercier, Marjorie; Alexander, Kate; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W. (2014)
      The objective of this study is to describe computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) for the cross-sectional imaging of the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), to provide reference figures for gross anatomy with corresponding CT and MR images, and to compare the features of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the normal koala with that reported in other domestic species. Advanced imaging can be used to aid in diagnosis, to plan surgical intervention, and to monitor therapeutic responses to diseases of the nasal passages in koalas....
    • Depositional diseases

      Graham, E.A.; Burns, Rachel E.; Ossiboff, R. J.; Garner, Michael M.; Jacobson, Elliott R. (CRC Press, 2021)
      This book accompanies Infectious Diseases and Pathology of Reptiles, Second Edition to cover noninfectious diseases of reptiles, meeting the need for a similar, authoritative single-source reference. The volume features color photos of normal anatomy and histology, as well as gross, light, and electron microscopic imagery of diseases. Subjects range from neoplasia, nutrition, and metabolic disease, and deposition disorders to developmental anomalies, trauma, and physical diseases, and the unique contribution of paleopathology and diseases of bone. Each chapter is supported by numerous figures, many of which are unique and cannot be found in the published literature. Readers will note that some of the chapters are based on organ system, a trend that will continue into the next edition to encompass all of the basic organ systems. This book holds the most information ever accrued into one publication on noninfectious diseases and pathology of this class of animals, providing information on every aspect of the anatomy, pathophysiology, and differential diagnosis. With up-to-the-minute data, a never-before-seen collection of images, and a stellar panel of contributors, Noninfectious Diseases and Pathology of Reptiles is the definitive resource for veterinarians, biologists, and researchers involved in the study of reptile diseases.
    • Development of a case definition for clinical feline herpesvirus infection in cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) housed in zoos

      Witte, Carmel L.; Lamberski, Nadine; Rideout, Bruce; Fields, Victoria; Teare, Cyd Shields; Barrie, Michael; Haefele, Holly; Junge, Randall; Murray, Suzan; Hungerford, Laura L. (2013)
      The identification of feline herpesvirus (FHV) infected cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and characterization of shedding episodes is difficult due to nonspecific clinical signs and limitations of diagnostic tests. The goals of this study were to develop a case definition for clinical FHV and describe the distribution of signs. Medical records from six different zoologic institutions were reviewed to identify cheetahs with diagnostic test results confirming FHV….
    • Disseminated coccidoidomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Stalis, Ilse H.; Pye, Geoffrey W. (2012)
      A16-yr-old male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented for nonspecific signs of illness and weight loss. Despite 2 mo of diagnostics and supportive care, the koala's health declined and euthanasia was elected....
    • Elaeophora in the meninges of a Malayan sambar (Rusa unicolor equina)

      Bernard, Jennifer; Grunenwald, Caroline; Stalis, Ilse H.; Varney, Megan; Zuba, Jeffery R.; Gerhold, Richard (2016)
      An adult nematode was grossly identified in the meninges of a Malayan sambar (Rusa unicolor equina), with numerous microfilariae associated with encephalitis and vasculitis on histopathology. The nematode was confirmed to be Elaeophora schneideri by sequencing a portion of the 18S rRNA gene. Our report highlights the potential for aberrant migration of E. schneideri in exotic deer species and the use of advanced testing to specifically identify this metazoan parasite, avoiding misidentification of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis.
    • Epidemiology of tuberculosis in multi-host wildlife systems: Implications for black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceros

      Dwyer, Rebecca A.; Witte, Carmel L.; Buss, Peter; Goosen, Wynand J.; Miller, Michele (2020)
      Cases of tuberculosis (TB) resulting from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have been recorded in captive white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros. More recently, cases have been documented in free-ranging populations of both species in bovine tuberculosis (bTB) endemic areas of South Africa. There is limited information on risk factors and transmission patterns for MTBC infections in African rhinoceros, however, extrapolation from literature on MTBC infections in other species and multi-host systems provides a foundation for understanding TB epidemiology in rhinoceros species. Current diagnostic tests include blood-based immunoassays but distinguishing between subclinical and active infections remains challenging due to the lack of diagnostic techniques. In other species, demographic risk factors for MTBC infection include sex and age, where males and adults are generally at higher risk than females and younger individuals. Limited available historical information reflects similar age- and sex-associated patterns for TB in captive black and white rhinoceros, with more reports of MTBC-associated disease in black rhinoceros than in white rhinoceros. The degree of MTBC exposure in susceptible wildlife depends on their level of interaction, either directly with other infected individuals or indirectly through MTBC contaminated environments, which is dependent on the presence and abundance of infected reservoir hosts and the amount of MTBC shed in their excreta. Captive African rhinoceros have shown evidence of MTBC shedding, and although infection levels are low in free-ranging rhinoceros, there is a risk for intraspecies transmission. Free-ranging rhinoceros in bTB endemic areas may be exposed to MTBC from other infected host species, such as the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), through shared environmental niches, and resource co-utilization. This review describes current knowledge and information gaps regarding the epidemiology of TB in African rhinoceros.
    • Granulomatous myositis associated with a novel alveolate pathogen in an adult southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus)

      Jones, Megan E. B.; Armién, Aníbal G.; Rothermel, Betsie B.; Pessier, Allan P. (2012)
      Since 1999, infections with an incompletely characterized alveolate protozoan variously reported as a Dermocystidium-like organism, a Perkinsus-like agent, and Dermomycoides sp. have been associated with mortality events in tadpoles of ranid frogs from the USA. However, disease or mortality events due to this organism have not been described in post-metamorphic animals. We describe infection with a morphologically similar protozoan presenting itself as a leg mass in a free-ranging adult southern leopard frog Lithobates sphenocephalus….
    • Herpesvirus surveillance and discovery in zoo-housed ruminants

      Partin, Teagen G.; Schrenzel, Mark D.; Braun, Josephine; Witte, Carmel L.; Kubiski, Steven V.; Lee, Justin; Rideout, Bruce (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021)
      Gammaherpesvirus infections are ubiquitous in captive and free-ranging ruminants and are associated with a variety of clinical diseases ranging from subclinical or mild inflammatory syndromes to fatal diseases such as malignant catarrhal fever. Gammaherpesvirus infections have been fully characterized in only a few ruminant species, and the overall diversity, host range, and biologic effects of most are not known. This study investigated the presence and host distribution of gammaherpesviruses in ruminant species at two facilities, the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. We tested antemortem (blood, nasal or oropharyngeal swabs) or postmortem (internal organs) samples from 715 healthy or diseased ruminants representing 96 species and subspecies, using a consensus-based herpesvirus PCR for a segment of the DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene. Among the 715 animals tested, 161 (22.5%) were PCR and sequencing positive for herpesvirus, while only 11 (6.83%) of the PCR positive animals showed clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever. Forty-four DPOL genotypes were identified of which only 10 have been reported in GenBank. The data describe viral diversity within species and individuals, identify host ranges of potential new viruses, and address the proclivity and consequences of interspecies transmission during management practices in zoological parks. The discovery of new viruses with wide host ranges and presence of co-infection within individual animals also suggest that the evolutionary processes influencing Gammaherpesvirus diversity are more complex than previously recognized.
    • Histologic and molecular correlation in shelter cats with acute upper respiratory infection

      Burns, Rachel E.; Wagner, Denae C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Pesavento, Patricia A. (2011)
      This is a descriptive study designed to correlate diagnostic real-time PCR results with histopathologic lesions in cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory infection (URI). The study occurred over a 9-month period in a single open-intake animal shelter....
    • IOD in rhinos--epidemiology group report: report from the Epidemiology Working Group of the International Workshop on Iron Overload Disorder in Browsing Rhinoceros

      Dennis, Pam; Ellis, Susie; Mellen, Jill; Lee, Pauline; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Petric, Ann; Ryder, Oliver A. (2012)
      The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the International Workshop on Iron Storage Disease (renamed iron overload disorder, IOD), identified several areas in which information is lacking regarding IOD in browser rhinoceros. One of the first steps necessary in understanding iron overload disorder (IOD) is to define the parameters by which to identify IOD....
    • Noninvasive sampling for detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus and genomic DNA in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants

      Jeffrey, Alison; Evans, Tierra Smiley; Molter, Christine M.; Howard, Lauren L.; Ling, Paul; Goldstein, Tracey; Gilardi, Kirsten (2020)
      Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) threatens Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) population sustainability in North America…. To evaluate noninvasive sample collection options, paired invasively collected (blood, trunk wash and oral swabs), and noninvasively collected (chewed plant and fecal) samples were compared over 6 wk from 9 Asian elephants and 12 African elephants….
    • Resolution of a localized granuloma caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex on the cere of a Bruce's green pigeon (Treron waalia)

      Zikovitz, Andrea E.; Stalis, Ilse H.; Bicknese, Elizabeth; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W. (2018)
      A 3-year-old female Bruce's green pigeon (Treron waalia) was presented with granulomatous inflammation of the cere and underlying tissues with osteomyelitis and bone proliferation of the dorsal premaxilla. Biopsy and culture revealed the presence of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex, and multi-antimicrobial treatment was initiated with clarithromycin, ethambutol, rifabutin, and enrofloxacin....
    • Serum protein electrophoresis values for free-ranging and zoo-based koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Pye, Geoffrey W.; Ellis, William A.; FitzGibbon, Sean; Opitz, Brian; Keener, Laura; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Cray, Carolyn (2012)
      In a clinical setting, especially with species of special interest, it is important to use all clinical pathology testing options for general health monitoring and diagnosis. Protein electrophoresis (EPH) has previously been shown to be an important adjunct tool in veterinary medicine. Serum samples from 18 free-ranging and 12 zoo-based koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) were subject to EPH analysis….