• 5.3 Grazing

      Becchetti, Theresa; Barry, Sheila; Honey, Marc; Ozeran, Rebecca; Defreese, Denise; de la Rosa, Charlie; Rao, Devii; Freese, Robert; Principe, Zach; Shomo, Brian (California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC), 2021)
      ...The information in this guide is organized into sections based on similarities in the certain techniques— either how they are applied or how they control a weed.... Grazing by cattle, sheep, and goats can be used as a technique for controlling weeds. There are differences in effectiveness among grazers depending on weed species and environments being targeted, but in general grazing (herbivory) for weed control varies more by the plants being grazed than the animals grazing them....
    • Andean Bear Priority Conservation Units in Bolivia and Peru: Results of the Binational Workshop for the Conservation of the Andean Bear in Bolivia and Peru, November 8th & 9th 2008, held as part of the II International Symposium on the Andean Bear in Lima, Peru.

      Pitman, Renata Leite; Reinaga, A.; Siles, T.; Baiker, J.; Goldstein, B.; Ríos-Uzeda, R.; Van Horn, Russell C.; Vargas, X.; ADD MORE (2014)
      ...Given the importance of the Andean bear for conservation efforts across the Tropical Andes and the lack of systematized information regarding distribution and ecology, an effort was made at the beginning of the millennium to gather and collectively analyze existing Andean bear data for the Northern Andes. Lead by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), with institutional support from a number of other conservation NGO’s, particularly the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and Ecociencia, this exercise encompassed the entire known northern range for the species in Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, as well as the extreme northern portions of Peru (Rodríguez et al., 2003). A parallel analysis of these results were also published in an internationally recognized journal (Kattan et al., 2004), and the fIndings and recommendations have been widely cited (Garcia-Rangel, 2012) and incorporated into conservation planning efforts across the range covered by the analysis (Peralvo et al., 2005)....
    • Disorders of sexual development in wild and captive exotic animals

      Mastromonaco, G. F.; Houck, Marlys L.; Bergfelt, D. R. (2012)
      ...Compared to the wealth of information available on humans and domestic species, a better understanding of the factors influencing sexual development in wildlife is essential for developing and improving population management or conservation plans. This review attempts to bring together the different facets of DSDs as studied in the fields of reproductive physiology, endocrinology, ecotoxicology, wildlife biology, and environmental health.
    • Distribution and population patterns of the threatened palm Brahea aculeata in a tropical dry forest in Sonora, Mexico

      López-Toledo, Leonel; Horn, Christa M.; Endress, Bryan A. (2011)
      The use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has great potential for the conservation of natural resources and rural development…. However, in most cases basic ecological information, such as distribution and abundance of the species is unknown, as is information on the ecological implications of human impacts, such as leaf harvest and livestock grazing…. Results from this study will be used to develop appropriate conservation, management and restoration plans of B. aculeata in the area.
    • Ecology and conservation of the Turks Island boa (Epicrates chrysogaster chrysogaster: Squamata: Boidae) on Big Ambergris Cay

      Reynolds, R.G.; Gerber, Glenn P. (2012)
      The boid genus Epicrates contains 10 species in the West Indies, several of which are listed as threatened or endangered, whereas the status of the others remains unknown. Little is known about Turks Island Boas (Epicrates chrysogaster chrysogaster), a subspecies of the Southern Bahamas Boa endemic to the Turks and Caicos Islands, and no published ecological studies exist for this subspecies. A long history of human habitation, greatly exacerbated by exponentially increasing development in the last several decades, appears to be threatening the remaining populations of these boas. However, a lack of basic ecological information is holding back conservation efforts. Here we report on the first multiyear ecological study of Turks Island Boas, focusing on an important population located on the small island of Big Ambergris Cay in the southeastern margin of the Caicos Bank. Encounter rates of up to 3.5 snakes per person-hour make this population especially easy to study. We captured 249 snakes, 11 of which were recaptures. We provide basic natural history information including size, color pattern, girth, body temperature, abundance, diet, activity, diurnal refuge selection, and population size. We also clarify the known distribution and discuss the conservation concerns of this species. This study fills a gap in our ecological knowledge of Bahamian boas and will provide important baseline data for the Big Ambergris Cay population of Turks Island Boas as this small island undergoes extensive development over the next several decades.
    • Environmental violence and the socio-environmental (de)evolution of a landscape in the San Quintín Valley.

      Narchi, Nemer E.; Vanderplank, Sula E.; Medina-Rodríguez, Jesús; Alfaro-Mercado, Enrique (2020)
      The social and environmental effects of industrial agriculture in the San Quintín Valley of Baja California are closely related. An environmental history of the...
    • Evaluating potential effects of solar power facilities on wildlife from an animal behavior perspective

      Chock, Rachel Y.; Clucas, Barbara; Peterson, Elizabeth K.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Church, Kathleen; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Francescoli, Gabriel; Greggor, Alison L.; Kemp, Paul; et al. (2021)
      Solar power is a renewable energy source with great potential to help meet increasing global energy demands and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. However, research is scarce on how solar facilities affect wildlife. With input from professionals in ecology, conservation, and energy, we conducted a research-prioritization process and identified key questions needed to better understand impacts of solar facilities on wildlife. We focused on animal behavior, which can be used to identify population responses before mortality or other fitness consequences are documented. Behavioral studies can also offer approaches to understand the mechanisms leading to negative interactions (e.g., collision, singeing, avoidance) and provide insight into mitigating effects. Here, we review how behavioral responses to solar facilities, including perception, movement, habitat use, and interspecific interactions are priority research areas. Addressing these themes will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of solar power on wildlife and guide future mitigation.
    • Funding should come to those who wait

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Terborgh, John W.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; (2010)
      ... If long-term research is to flourish, we must build a reward system for studies characterized by deferred gratification. A sea change in these values must precede attempts to address funding....
    • Giant panda conservation science: how far we have come

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Wei, Fuwen; Wildt, David E.; Kouba, Andrew J.; Zhang, Zejun (The Royal Society, 2009-10-28)
      ...Here we discuss recent advancements in conservation science for giant pandas and suggest that the way forward is more direct application of emerging science to management and policy.
    • Giant Pandas: Biology, Veterinary Medicine and Management

      Wildt, David E.; Zhang, Anju; Zhang, Hemin; Janssen, Donald L.; Ellis, Susie (Cambridge University Press, 2012)
      The giant panda is one of the world's most recognized animals, but until now the biology of this threatened species has been a mystery....
    • Heterogeneity in ecological and evolutionary meta-analyses: its magnitude and implications

      Senior Alistair M.; Grueber, Catherine E.; Kamiya Tsukushi; Lagisz Malgorzata; O'Dwyer Katie; Santos, Eduardo S. A.; Nakagawa Shinichi (2016)
      ...We reviewed 700 studies, finding 325 that used formal meta‐analysis, of which total heterogeneity was reported in fewer than 40%. We used second‐order meta‐analysis to collate heterogeneity statistics from 86 studies. Our analysis revealed that the median and mean heterogeneity, expressed as I 2, are 84.67% and 91.69%, respectively....