• Altitudinal movements of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) in Fanjingshang National Nature Reserve, China: Implications for conservation management of a flagship species

      Niu, K.; Tan, C.L.; Yang, Y.; (2010)
      Primate movements can include a substantial altitudinal component, depending on the complexity of the landscape and the distribution of the inherent vegetation zones. We investigated altitudinal movements of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) at Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, China. The monkeys ranged at elevations between 1,350 and 1,870 m with an overall mean of 1,660 m….
    • Automated telemetry reveals post-reintroduction exploratory behavior and movement patterns of an endangered corvid, ʻAlalā (Corvus hawaiiensis) in Hawaiʻi, USA

      Smetzer, Jennifer R.; Greggor, Alison L.; Paxton, Kristina L.; Masuda, Bryce M.; Paxton, Eben H. (2021)
      Continuous movement monitoring is a powerful tool for evaluating reintroduction techniques and assessing how well reintroduced animals are adjusting to the wild. However, to date, continuous monitoring has only occurred for large-bodied species capable of carrying heavy tracking devices. In this study we used an automated VHF radio telemetry array to investigate the exploratory behavior and movement patterns of critically endangered ?Alal? (Corvus hawaiiensis), reintroduced to the Island of Hawai?i in 2017. The 11 juvenile ?Alal? we tracked exhibited high site fidelity and initial survival. Over time the birds showed decreased time spent at the supplemental feeders, and transitioned to more focused use of the landscape, suggesting increased foraging on wild food items. Birds with seemingly less spatial neophobia at release also made larger post-release exploratory movements. This study provides the first evidence that 1) supplemental feeding can support site fidelity for reintroduced ?Alal? without restricting a transition to independent foraging, and 2) that pre-release personality metrics may be useful predictors for predicting post-release movements of ?Alal?. Our work is the first to demonstrate the utility and power of automated telemetry for monitoring the reintroduction of small species.
    • Developmental milestones among African elephant calves on their first day of life

      Bercovitch, Fred B.; Andrews, Jeff; (2010)
      ...We show that calves born in a zoo stand and walk on their own for the first time at the same age as those born in the wild. Calves born in the zoo take a little longer until first successful nursing, but the difference in age between wild and zoo is not statistically significant....
    • Developmental stability of foraging behavior: evaluating suitability of captive giant pandas for translocation

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S.; Owen, Megan A.; Zhou X.; Zhang H. (2018)
      The behavioral competence of captive-bred individuals - an important source population for translocation programs - may differ from that of wild-born individuals and these differences may influence post-release survival. Some behaviors will be more robust, or developmentally stable, than others in the face of the environmental novelties of captivity. Here, we investigated developmental stability of foraging behavior by quantifying bamboo feeding behavior in captive-bred and wild-born giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanleuca. As an energy-limited species adapted to a low-nutrition diet, any reductions in feeding efficiency may compromise post-release survival. Using video of 22 captive pandas, we measured several components of the panda's elaborate bamboo feeding behavior repertoire. We found that captive-born and wild-born pandas displayed the same repertoire of feeding behaviors, suggesting developmental stability in these motor patterns, but that they employed them differently with different parts of the bamboo. Captive-born pandas devoted less time and effort to handling and chewing leaves while allocating more effort to the consumption of large culms than did wild?born pandas. Captive-born pandas also handled small culm and stripped small culms to prepare them for consumption less often than did wild?born pandas. All of these behavioral differences indicate that wild-born pandas in captivity behave in a manner more similar to wild pandas, and focus their behavioral effort on more nutritious bamboo. Thus, these aspects of captive-born panda feeding behavior may be compromised, and were not developmentally stable in the captive environment. These behavioral differences are cause for concern and should be the subject of future study to determine whether they forecast compromised fitness in translocations. Evaluating developmental stability and behavioral competence should be a key component of captive-release translocation programs, serving to guide pre-release training and selection of individuals to be released.
    • Dietary specialization and Eucalyptus species preferences in Queensland koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Higgins, Alexis L.; Bercovitch, Fred B.; Tobey, Jennifer R.; Andrus, Chris Hamlin (2011)
      ...We studied the feeding choices of four adult male koalas housed at the San Diego Zoo. All subjects had a choice of nine types of Eucalyptus leaves over the eight‐week study....
    • Miller-Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy

      Miller, R. Eric; Lamberski, Nadine; Calle, Paul; Miller, R. Eric; Lamberski, Nadine; Calle, Paul (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2019)
      Bringing together a globally diverse range of timely topics related to zoo and wild animals, Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Volume 9 is an invaluable tool for any professional working directly with wildlife and zoo animals. The text’s user-friendly format guides readers through biology, anatomy, and special physiology; reproduction; restraint and handling; housing requirements; nutrition and feeding; surgery and anesthesia; diagnostics, and therapeutics for each animal....