• Advances and constraints in somatic embryogenesis of Araucaria angustifolia, Acca sellowiana, and Bactris gasipaes

      Stefenon, Valdir Marcos; Ree, Joseph Francis; Pinheiro, Marcos Vinicius Marques; Goeten, Daniela; Steiner, Neusa; Guerra, Miguel Pedro (2020)
      Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a useful biotechnological tool to promote the conservation of plant genetic resources. Araucaria angustifolia, Acca sellowiana, and Bactris gasipaes are forest species with recognized ecological, cultural, and economic importance in the subtropical Atlantic Forest and the tropical Amazon Forest…. Here we reviewed and discussed the advancements and continuing constraints in the SE of these species, pointing out the more successful procedures….
    • Altitudinal movements of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) in Fanjingshang National Nature Reserve, China: Implications for conservation management of a flagship species

      Niu, K.; Tan, C.L.; Yang, Y.; (2010)
      Primate movements can include a substantial altitudinal component, depending on the complexity of the landscape and the distribution of the inherent vegetation zones. We investigated altitudinal movements of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) at Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, China. The monkeys ranged at elevations between 1,350 and 1,870 m with an overall mean of 1,660 m….
    • Body temperature and thermoregulation of Komodo dragons in the field

      Harlow, Henry J.; Purwandana, Deni; Jessop, Tim S.; Phillips, John A.; (2010)
      ...We found that all size groups of dragons regulated a similar preferred body temperature by exploiting a heterogeneous thermal environment within savanna, forest and mangrove habitats. All dragons studied, regardless of size, were able to regulate a daytime active body temperature within the range 34–35.6 °C for 5.1–5.6 h/day....
    • Conservation assessment of Guaiacum sanctum and Guaiacum coulteri: Historic distribution and future trends in Mexico

      López-Toledo, Leonel; Gonzalez-Salazar, C.; Burslem, D.F.R.P.; Martinez-Ramos, M. (2011)
      Guaiacum sanctum and Guaiacum coulteri are long‐lived Mesoamerican timber tree species heavily exploited throughout their range and considered to be at risk of extinction. Both species are included on the IUCN Red List and on CITES Appendix II, but there has been no formal assessment of the conservation status of either species. We used ecological niche modeling and rapid assessments of local density and population size structure to provide such evaluations....
    • Demographic effects of legal timber harvesting on Guaiacum sanctum L., an endangered neotropical tree: implications for conservation

      López-Toledo, Leonel; Murillo-García, A.; Martínez-Ramos, M.; Pérez-Salicrup, D. (2011)
      Guaiacum sanctum is a timber tree species from the Americas, considered threatened in eleven different countries, including Mexico, and listed in CITES Appendix II. This species is currently harvested legally in the southern Mexican state of Campeche. Despite its protected status, the current condition of its populations and the effects of harvesting upon them have not been assessed. The conservation status of four unlogged populations were evaluated across Central Campeche by documenting their densities and demographic structures, and then compared the size class demographic structures of one unlogged and three logged populations at different times after harvest (3, 8 and 20 years) to evaluate the effects of timber harvesting upon population structure. Additionally, a regeneration index (proportion of seedlings within the population) was estimated for each of the seven populations. Densities of G. sanctum varied from 278 to 1732 stems/ha with ≥1cm at 1.3m·height in Campeche. Differences were found in the population structures of unlogged populations, although the density of seedlings and trees was high in all of the sites. Contrary to expectations, higher densities were found in all size classes in logged populations. Results suggest that current logging practices do not have a drastic negative effect on the density of remaining individuals. Although the results indicate that G. sanctum in Campeche is not locally endangered, it is recommend that it be maintained in CITES Appendix II.
    • Distribution and population patterns of the threatened palm Brahea aculeata in a tropical dry forest in Sonora, Mexico

      López-Toledo, Leonel; Horn, Christa M.; Endress, Bryan A. (2011)
      The use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has great potential for the conservation of natural resources and rural development…. However, in most cases basic ecological information, such as distribution and abundance of the species is unknown, as is information on the ecological implications of human impacts, such as leaf harvest and livestock grazing…. Results from this study will be used to develop appropriate conservation, management and restoration plans of B. aculeata in the area.
    • Old-growth forest is what giant pandas really need

      Zhang, Zejun; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Zhang, S.; Nordstrom, Lisa A.; Wang, H.; Gu, X.; Hu, J.; Wei, F. (2011)
      …Here, we use an information-theoretic approach to analyse the largest, landscape-level dataset on panda habitat use to date, and challenge the prevailing wisdom about panda habitat needs. We show that pandas are associated with old-growth forest more than with any ecological variable other than bamboo….
    • Potential management of Chamaedorea seifrizii (Palmae), a non-timber forest product from the tropical forest of Calakmul, Southeast Mexico

      López-Toledo, Leonel; Horn, Christa M.; López-Cen, A.; Collí-Díaz, R.; Padilla, A. (2011)
      Leaves and seeds of Chamaedorea (xate) palms are important non-timber forest products (NTFPs). In the Calakmul region (Yucatan Peninsula) of Mexico, several communities have sporadically collected and sold seeds of C. seifrizii since 1980. However, harvesting has intensified recently, raising concerns about overexploitation....
    • Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): A review of conservation status

      Wibisono, Hariyo T.; Pusparini, Wulan; (2010)
      The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88 000 km2. However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km2 and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management.
    • The soil seed bank in abandoned tropical pastures: source of regeneration or invasion?

      López-Toledo, Leonel; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel (2011)
      We assessed the availability of both pioneer and non-native species in the soil seed bank of old-growth forest and recently abandoned pasture, to evaluate whether the soil seed bank in these pastures represents a source of regeneration of species from adjacent old-growth forest or of invasion by non-native species. Our study was conducted at Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, Mexico. Soil samples were randomly collected from 6 sites in old-growth forest, and 6 sites in abandoned pastures. Seedlings from soil samples were identified and classified into pioneer, non-native (weeds/graminoids), and other forest species. Pioneer species seeds were virtually absent in pastures, but represented ~30% of seeds in the forest. Non-native species comprised ~99% of the soil seed bank in pastures. In the forest, soil seed bank density of weeds and graminoids decreased with increasing distance (up to 4 km) from agricultural fields, and comprised up to 25% (Mean ± 1SE= 16 ± 7) of the seed bank. Our results show a near total elimination of pioneer species from the soil seed bank in pastures, and considerable invasion of the borders of the Montes Azules reserve by seeds of non-native species. Thus, in the region studied, the soil seed bank in abandoned pastures represents a source of invasion by non-native species into old-growth forest rather than a potential source of forest regeneration.
    • Urgent action needed: The forgotten forests of the Lavasoa-Ambatotsirongorongo Mountains, southeast Madagascar

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Refaly, Ernest; Tsagnangara, Cedric; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Donati, Giuseppe (2019)
      When we think of important areas of biodiversity within Madagascar, we tend to focus on the more well-known na-tional parks and special reserves. The truth is, however, that there are many small fragments scattered across this island that hold a significant wealth of biodiversity that are in criti-cal need of attention and immediate conservation actions. One such system is a group of six small forest fragments within the Lavasoa-Ambatotsirongorongo mountains in the extreme southeast of Madagascar. From east to west, these include Ambatotsirongorongo, Bemanasa, and Grand Lava-soa (Fig. 1). This last fragment is further divided into four fragments that are all in relatively close proximity....