• Andros iguana: Conservation action plan, 2005-2011

      Knapp, Charles; Pagni, Lee (IUCN/SSC Iguana Specialist GroupGland, Switzerland, 2011)
      The endangered Andros iguana, Cyclura cychlura cychlura, is the largest native terrestrial vertebrate, and the only iguana (of 3 species) in the Bahamas that is not confined presently to small cays. The Andros iguana is unique to Andros Island and despite the recent formation of a national park on North Andros Island in 2002, the population is declining. This document presents a comprehensive plan for conservation measures considered essential to the long-term survival of this flagship species in the wild. It combines the knowledge and expertise of highly qualified experts from government and non-government organizations within The Bahamas with the collective conservation experience and scientific expertise of the IUCN/SSC Iguana Specialist Group.
    • Body size, demography, and body condition in Ctenosaura bakeri

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Montgomery, C.E.; Martinez, A.; Belal, N.; Clayson, S.; Faulkner, S. (2012)
      Abstract.—Utila Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Ctenosaura bakeri, are listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN Redlist Assessment and are listed under Appendix II of CITES. This species occupies a portion of Utila, a small continental island located off the northern coast of Honduras, in the Bay Islands chain. Habitat destruction and overharvesting for consumption and the pet trade are among the top threats facing this species. Though first described in 1901 (Stejneger) and currently the focus of a local conservation program, little is known concerning that basic biology of this species. Combining data from six years we examined body size, sexual size dimorphism, and changes in demography and body condition over the study period. Our results indicate that males are larger and heavier than females on average, and have a longer tail for a given snout-vent length, as is the case with most iguanas. Over the study period we found an increase in the ratio of males to females, suggesting that female biased hunting pressure is increasing. This is consistent with an increase in the human population size and a preference for consuming gravid females. The body condition of both males and females declined over the duration of the study, which is suggestive of a decrease in habitat quality. These results indicate that the situation for this endangered species is becoming increasingly threatening. Conservation measures should focus on alleviating these threats through increased law enforcement, outreach, and education.
    • Body size, demography, and body condition in Utila spiny-tailed iguanas, Ctenosaura bakeri

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Montgomery, Chad E; Martinez, Andrea; Belal, Nardiah; Clayson, Steve; Faulkner, Shane (2012)
      Utila Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Ctenosaura bakeri, are listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN Redlist Assessment and are listed under Appendix II of CITES. This species occupies a portion of Utila, a small continental island located off the northern coast of Honduras, in the Bay Islands chain. Habitat destruction and overharvesting for consumption and the pet trade are among the top threats facing this species. Though first described in 1901 (Stejneger) and currently the focus of a local conservation program, little is known concerning that basic biology of this species. Combining data from six years we examined body size, sexual size dimorphism, and changes in demography and body condition over the study period. Our results indicate that males are larger and heavier than females on average, and have a longer tail for a given snout-vent length, as is the case with most iguanas. Over the study period we found an increase in the ratio of males to females, suggesting that female biased hunting pressure is increasing. This is consistent with an increase in the human population size and a preference for consuming gravid females. The body condition of both males and females declined over the duration of the study, which is suggestive of a decrease in habitat quality. These results indicate that the situation for this endangered species is becoming increasingly threatening. Conservation measures should focus on alleviating these threats through increased law enforcement, outreach, and education.
    • Conservation Of amphibians And reptiles In The Bahamas

      Buckner, Sandra D.; Knapp, Charles R.; Cant, Shelley V.; Iverson, John B.; Horrocks, Julia; Wilson, Byron; Hailey, Adrian (Brill, 2011)
      ...The native herpetofauna of The Bahamas is derived primarily from Cuba and Hispaniola, and numbers 46 species comprised of three frogs (including one endemic),25 lizards (13 endemic), 11 snakes (7 endemic), two freshwater turtles, and five sea turtles. Of thenative terrestrial species, 85% are either not assessed or data deficient to affirm IUCN listing, thusstressing the need for more research in The Bahamas. Currently, there are few legislative laws directly protecting the herpetofauna of The Bahamas although all three rock iguanas (Cyclura) are technically given full protection under the Wild Animals (Protection) Act of 1968.....
    • Cyclura: Natural History, Husbandry, and Conservation of West Indian Rock Iguanas

      Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Alberts, Allison C. (ElsevierSan Diego, CA, 2012)
      …Cyclura: Natural History, Husbandry, and Conservation of the West Indian Iguanas is the first book to combine the natural history and captive husbandry of these remarkable reptiles, while at the same time outlining the problems researchers and conservationists are battling to save these beautiful, iconic animals of the Caribbean islands…..
    • Do invasive rodents impact endangered insular iguana populations?

      Hayes, William K.; Iverson, John B.; Knapp, Charles R.; Carter, Ronald L. (2012)
      Ample evidence confirms that large invasive mammalian competitors and predators can devastate endangered insular iguana populations. However, the impact of invasive rodents, particularly rats (Rattus rattus), has remained elusive....
    • Genetic structure of Rhinoceros Rock Iguanas, Cyclura cornuta, in the Dominican Republic, with insights into the impact of captive facilities and the taxonomic status of Cyclura on Mona Island

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Colosimo, Giuliano; Carreras-De León, Rosanna; Gerber, Glenn P. (2020)
      …To better understand the population structure of this species, we used a combination of mtDNA and nuclear markers to elucidate the genetic variation of wild populations across 13 sampling regions in the Dominican Republic (DR), as well as neighboring Mona Island, home to a Cyclura population of uncertain taxonomic status…. Our results suggest that the captive facilities may pose a threat to wild populations and increased regulation of these facilities is needed….
    • Green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in the Dominican Republic

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Carreras De León, Rosanna; Reynoso, Víctor; Rupp, Ernst; León, Yolanda; Incháustegui, Sixto (2012)
      Iguana iguana has a natural distribution from México (Sinaloa and Veracruz) southward through Central America and into northeastern South America to the Tropic of Capricorn in Paraguay and southeastern Brazil. The species also occurs on numerous islands, including Cozumel, Utila, Roatán, Guanaja, the Corn Islands, Providencia, San Andrés, Aruba, Trinidad, Tobago, and others in the Lesser Antilles (Henderson and Powell 2009). It has been introduced to Anguilla, Antigua, Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Cayman Islands, Fiji, Guadeloupe, Grand Cayman, Les Îles de Saintes, Marie Galante, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten, St. Barthélemy, St. Croix, Turks and Caicos, U.S. Virgin Islands, and the United States (Florida, Hawaii) (Henderson and Powell 2009, Kraus 2009, Lindsay and Mussington 2009, Harlow and Thomas 2010, Powell et al. 2011)....
    • Husbandry manual for West Indian iguanas

      Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Lung, N.; Ward, A.M.; (International Iguana FoundationFort Worth, TX, 2010)
    • Molecular variation and population structure in critically endangered Turks and Caicos Rock Iguanas: identifying intraspecific conservation units and revising subspecific taxonomy

      Welch, Mark E.; Colosimo, Giuliano; Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Malone, Catherine L.; Hilton, Jace; Long, June; Getz, Angela H.; Alberts, Allison C.; Gerber, Glenn P. (2017)
      For species living in naturally fragmented habitats, the identification of conservation units is particularly challenging. Turks and Caicos Rock Iguanas, Cyclura carinata, are endemic to the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI)....
    • Morphological and demographic analyses of Ctenosaura melanosterna across its range: Implications for population level management

      Pasachnik, Stesha A.; Montgomery, C.E.; Ruyle, L.E.; Corneal, J.P.; Antunez, E.E. (2012)
      The Black-chested Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura melanosterna, is listed as Endangered by the IUCN Redlist Assessment and under Appendix II of CITES. The species has two evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), found in the Valle de Aguán and the Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras. Each ESU has been shown to be genetically distinct and each is listed, for differing reasons, as Critically Endangered by the IUCN. Habitat destruction and overharvesting for consumption and the pet trade are among the top threats facing the mainland, Valle de Aguán, population. The Cayos Cochinos population faces similar threats to a lesser degree; however, its restricted range (2.2 km2 ) heightens the potential severity of these threats, and makes this population highly susceptible to the impact of hurricanes. We examined body size, demography, and body condition in both populations. Our results show that the average adult size is smaller on the mainland, and there are more than expected small individuals in that population. Additionally the sex ratio is significantly male biased on the mainland relative to the islands. These results demonstrate evidence of a more severe poaching pressure on the mainland that is biased towards larger individuals and females. Body condition index did not differ between the more disturbed mainland area and the more pristine island area, suggesting that habitat alteration does not pose as serious a threat to the mainland population as poaching. Potential negative effects of a restricted range on the morphology and demography of the island ESU were observed. Conservation measures should acknowledge the differences between the ESUs when defining management initiatives for this species.
    • Population Analysis & Breeding and Transfer Plan, Grand Cayman Blue Iguana (Cyclura lewisi), AZA Species Survival Plan Yellow Program

      Grant, Tandora D.; Ivy, Jamie A. (Population Management Center. Associaton of Zoos and Aquariums, Lincoln Park Zoo, San Diego Zoo Global, 2020)
    • The influence of landscape heterogeneity and dispersal on survival of neonate insular iguanas

      Knapp, Charles R.; Alvarez-Clare, Silvia; Perez-Heydrich, Caro; (2010)
      ...We investigated the influence of habitat heterogeneity and dispersal patterns on neonate survival for the iguana Cyclura cychlura cychlura inhabiting Andros Island in the Bahamas. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was a clear survival advantage for neonates that spent more time in open mangrove habitat than relatively more closed-canopy habitats, most likely because of fewer primary predators in mangroves relative to other habitats....
    • Twenty-nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in Cyclura carinata, the Turks and Caicos Iguana, a critically endangered island endemic

      Welch, M.E.; Long, G.J.; Berk, J.W.; Getz, A.H.; Gerber, Glenn P.; Wallace, L.E. (2011)
      Cyclura carinata, a critically endangered Caribbean rock iguana, now occupies less than 5% of its historic range. Remaining populations are genetically structured, but available tools are insufficient to identify taxonomic units. Ten polymorphic microsatellites isolated from C. carinata, and 19 loci developed for congeners are identified....
    • Using microsatellite diversity in wild Anegada iguanas (Cyclura pinguis) to establish relatedness in a captive breeding group of this critically endangered species

      Mitchell, A.A.; Lau, J.; Chemnick, Leona G.; Thompson, E. A.; Alberts, Allison C.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Gerber, Glenn P. (2011)
      Awareness of the genealogical relationships between founder animals in captive breeding programs is essential for the selection of mating pairs that maintain genetic diversity. If captive founder relationships are unknown they can be inferred using genetic data from wild populations. Here, we report the results of such an analysis for six Cyclura pinguis (Sauria: Iguanidae) acquired as adults in 1999 by the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research to begin a captive breeding program for this critically endangered species....