• Giant panda scent-marking strategies in the wild: role of season, sex and marking surface

      Nie, Yonggang; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Zhang, Zejun; Hu, Yibo; Ma, Yisheng; Wei, Fuwen (2012)
      ...We studied scent-marking patterns in wild giant pandas in the Foping Nature Reserve by surveying areas containing a high density of scent posts. Pandas did not deploy scent marks randomly in this environment, but targeted trees with specific characteristics that promoted signal persistence, range and/or likelihood of detection....
    • On the trail of primate scent signals: A field analysis of callitrichid scent-gland secretions by portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

      Poirier, Alice C.; Waterhouse, John S.; Watsa, Mrinalini; Erkenswick, Gideon A.; Moreira, Laís A. A.; Tang, Jia; Dunn, Jacob C.; Melin, Amanda D.; Smith, Andrew C. (2021)
      …We present the first use of the Torion® portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument for in situ chemical analysis of primate scents. We collected and analyzed swab samples from the scent glands and skin from 13 groups (57 individuals) of two sympatric species of wild emperor tamarins, Saguinus imperator, and Weddell's saddleback tamarins, Leontocebus weddelli (Callitrichidae). In total, 11 compounds of interest (i.e., probably derived from the animals) could be detected in the samples, with 31 of 215 samples containing at least one compound of interest….
    • Scent-marking behavior by female sloth bears during estrus

      Khadpekar, Yaduraj; Whiteman, John P.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Owen, Megan A.; Prakash, Sant (2021)
      … Important aspects of sloth bear biology and ecology, such as reproductive physiology and behavior, are largely unknown. Increased scent-marking by anogenital rubbing during breeding season has been recorded in other bear species. We studied the genital rubbing behavior of 37 captive female sloth bears (2–18 yr of age) at the Agra Bear Rescue Facility, India, for 4 breeding seasons over a period of 3.5 years (1 Jun 2015 to 31 Dec 2018)….
    • Sociality and signaling activity modulate information flow in river otter communication networks

      Barocas, Adi; Golden, Howard N; Dudenhoeffer, Megan; Ben-David, Merav (2020)
      …In concert, our results suggest that in river otters, scent-marking decisions minimize signal dilution by being performed in small groups and maximize the receivers through preferential signaling at latrines with higher, more recent activity. Because signaling decisions in social animals are linked to key life-history events such as mating and group membership shifts, understanding their individual and population-level drivers can be crucial.