• Advances and constraints in somatic embryogenesis of Araucaria angustifolia, Acca sellowiana, and Bactris gasipaes

      Stefenon, Valdir Marcos; Ree, Joseph Francis; Pinheiro, Marcos Vinicius Marques; Goeten, Daniela; Steiner, Neusa; Guerra, Miguel Pedro (2020)
      Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a useful biotechnological tool to promote the conservation of plant genetic resources. Araucaria angustifolia, Acca sellowiana, and Bactris gasipaes are forest species with recognized ecological, cultural, and economic importance in the subtropical Atlantic Forest and the tropical Amazon Forest…. Here we reviewed and discussed the advancements and continuing constraints in the SE of these species, pointing out the more successful procedures….
    • Collecting and maintaining exceptional species in tissue culture and cryopreservation

      Pence, Valerie; Westwood, Murphy; Maschinski, Joyce; Powell, Christy; Sugii, Nellie; Fish, Diana; McGuinness, Julianne; Raven, Pat; Duval, Julian; Herrera-Mishler, Tomas; et al. (Center for Plant ConservationEscondido, California, 2019)
      Tissue culture and cryopreservation are alternative storage methods for exceptional species that produce few seeds or seed that are intolerant to drying or freezing. Adequately storing exceptional species requires specialized expertise, infrastructure, and greater resources than conventional seed storage....
    • Development of a SNP-based assay for measuring genetic diversity in the Tasmanian devil insurance population

      Wright, Belinda; Morris, Katrina; Grueber, Catherine E.; Willet, Cali E.; Gooley, Rebecca; Hogg, Carolyn J.; O’Meally, Denis; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Wade, Claire; et al. (2015)
      The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) has undergone a recent, drastic population decline due to the highly contagious devil facial tumor disease. The tumor is one of only two naturally occurring transmissible cancers and is almost inevitably fatal. In 2006 a disease-free insurance population was established to ensure that the Tasmanian devil is protected from extinction. The insurance program is dependent upon preserving as much wild genetic diversity as possible to maximize the success of subsequent reintroductions to the wild. Accurate genotypic data is vital to the success of the program to ensure that loss of genetic diversity does not occur in captivity. Until recently, microsatellite markers have been used to study devil population genetics, however as genetic diversity is low in the devil and potentially decreasing in the captive population, a more sensitive genotyping assay is required.
    • Immunomics of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Abts, Kendra C.; Ivy, Jamie A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew (2015)
      The study of the koala transcriptome has the potential to advance our understanding of its immunome—immunological reaction of a given host to foreign antigens—and to help combat infectious diseases (e.g., chlamydiosis) that impede ongoing conservation efforts….. Our efforts have produced full-length sequences for potentially important immune genes in koala, which should serve as targets for future investigations that aim to conserve koala populations.
    • On the trail of primate scent signals: A field analysis of callitrichid scent-gland secretions by portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

      Poirier, Alice C.; Waterhouse, John S.; Watsa, Mrinalini; Erkenswick, Gideon A.; Moreira, Laís A. A.; Tang, Jia; Dunn, Jacob C.; Melin, Amanda D.; Smith, Andrew C. (2021)
      …We present the first use of the Torion® portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument for in situ chemical analysis of primate scents. We collected and analyzed swab samples from the scent glands and skin from 13 groups (57 individuals) of two sympatric species of wild emperor tamarins, Saguinus imperator, and Weddell's saddleback tamarins, Leontocebus weddelli (Callitrichidae). In total, 11 compounds of interest (i.e., probably derived from the animals) could be detected in the samples, with 31 of 215 samples containing at least one compound of interest….
    • Stem cell therapy in zoo medicine

      Kinney, Matthew E.; Harman, Robert (ElsevierSt. Louis, MO, 2019)
    • The effects of GPS collars on African elephant (Loxodonta africana) behavior at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park

      Horback, Kristina Marie; Miller, Lance J.; Andrews, Jeffrey; Kuczaj, Stanley Abraham; Anderson, Matthew J. (2012)
      The use of tracking devices (e.g., VHF radio collars, GPS collars, ear transmitters) enables researchers to assess activity budgets, species-specific movement patterns, effects of environmental enrichment, and exercise levels in zoo animals….The present study examined solitary and social behavior rates, as well as overall activity budgets, in eight African elephants living at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, Escondido, CA, USA....
    • The Frozen Zoo

      Ryder, Oliver A. (2012)
      Wildlife gene banks provide a tool for studying species and monitoring conservation efforts
    • The role of bioacoustic signals in koala sexual selection: Insights from seasonal patterns of associations revealed with GPS-proximity units

      Ellis, William A.; FitzGibbon, Sean; Pye, Geoffrey W.; Whipple, Bill; Barth, Ben; Johnston, Stephen; Seddon, Jenny; Melzer, Alistair; Higgins, Damien; Bercovitch, Fred B. (2015)
      Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus—the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae) is poorly known and much of the koala’s sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas.
    • Using rattlesnake microsatellites to determine paternity in captive bushmasters (Lachesis muta)

      Pozarowski, K.; Ivy, Jamie A.; Herrmann, H.W. (2013)
      We used 10 microsatellite DNA markers originally described for two Crotalus and one Sistrurus species to infer paternity in a captive‐hatched clutch of Lachesis muta. Although the dam was known, records listed two potential sires, which prevented the inclusion of those offspring in a captive breeding program....