• Abomasal impaction in captive bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus)

      Gyimesi, Zoltan S.; Burns, Roy B.; Campbell, Mark; Knightly, Felicia; Kramer, Lynn W.; Wack, Raymund F.; Zuba, Jeffery R.; Rings, D. Michael (2011)
      Fatal abomasal impaction, often combined with omasal impaction, was diagnosed in 11 bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) from five different zoologic collections in the United States between 1981 and 2009. Nine of 11 cases occurred in young females (10 mo–7 yr old) and typical clinical signs prior to diagnosis or death included partial or complete anorexia, dehydration, and scant fecal production....
    • Animal Welfare in Conservation Breeding: Applications and Challenges

      Greggor, Alison L.; Vicino, Greg A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Fidgett, Andrea; Brenner, Deena J.; Kinney, Matthew E.; Farabaugh, Susan M.; Masuda, Bryce M.; Lamberski, Nadine (2018)
      Animal welfare and conservation breeding have overlapping and compatible goals that are occasionally divergent. Efforts to improve enclosures, provide enriching experiences, and address behavioral and physical needs further the causes of animal welfare in all zoo settings. However, by mitigating stress, increasing behavioral competence, and enhancing reproduction, health, and survival, conservation breeding programs must also focus on preparing animals for release into the wild. Therefore conservation breeding facilities must strike a balance of promoting high welfare, while minimizing the effects of captivity to increase population sustainability. As part of the Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program, San Diego Zoo Global operates two captive breeding facilities that house a number of endangered Hawaiian bird species. At our facilities we aim to increase captive animal welfare through husbandry, nutrition, behavior-based enrichment, and integrated veterinary practices. These efforts help foster a captive environment that promotes the development of species-typical behaviors. By using the “Opportunities to Thrive” guiding principles, we outline an outcome-based welfare strategy, and detail some of the related management inputs, such as transitioning to parental rearing, and conducting veterinary exams remotely. Throughout we highlight our evidence-based approach for evaluating our practices, by monitoring welfare and the effectiveness of our inputs. Additionally we focus on some of the unique challenges associated with improving welfare in conservation breeding facilitates and outline concrete future steps for improving and evaluating welfare outcomes that also meet conservation goals.
    • Approaches to management and care of the neonatal nondomestic ruminant

      Wolfe, B.A.; Lamberski, Nadine (2012)
      ...These differences become apparent quickly when the nondomestic neonate requires treatment, and an understanding of the special needs and risks involved can prevent unnecessary problems and losses. The aim of this article is to discuss the unique challenges presented by nondomestic ruminants and approaches to management of neonatal and pediatric cases.
    • Broad host range of SARS-CoV-2 predicted by comparative and structural analysis of ACE2 in vertebrates

      Damas, Joana; Hughes, Graham M.; Keough, Kathleen C.; Painter, Corrie A.; Persky, Nicole S.; Corbo, Marco; Hiller, Michael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pfenning, Andreas R.; Zhao, Huabin; et al. (2020)
      The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of COVID-19. The main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is now undergoing extensive scrutiny to understand the routes of transmission and sensitivity in different species. Here, we utilized a unique dataset of ACE2 sequences from 410 vertebrate species, including 252 mammals, to study the conservation of ACE2 and its potential to be used as a receptor by SARS-CoV-2. We designed a five-category binding score based on the conservation properties of 25 amino acids important for the binding between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Only mammals fell into the medium to very high categories and only catarrhine primates into the very high category, suggesting that they are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We employed a protein structural analysis to qualitatively assess whether amino acid changes at variable residues would be likely to disrupt ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding and found the number of predicted unfavorable changes significantly correlated with the binding score. Extending this analysis to human population data, we found only rare (frequency <0.001) variants in 10/25 binding sites. In addition, we found significant signals of selection and accelerated evolution in the ACE2 coding sequence across all mammals, and specific to the bat lineage. Our results, if confirmed by additional experimental data, may lead to the identification of intermediate host species for SARS-CoV-2, guide the selection of animal models of COVID-19, and assist the conservation of animals both in native habitats and in human care.
    • Chlamydia pneumoniae polioencephalomyelitis and ganglionitis in captive Houston toads (Anaxyrus houstonensis)

      Fratzke, Alycia; Howard, Lauren L.; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E.; Armién, Anibal; Oliveira, Fabiano; Ritchie, Branson; Berlin, Erin; Snook, Eric (2019)
      Chlamydia pneumoniae is a ubiquitous pathogen causing disease in humans, mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Since 2012, C. pneumoniae infection has caused neurologic disease and mortality in a breeding colony of endangered Houston toads (Anaxyrus houstonensis) at the Houston Zoo....
    • Clinical infection of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 4

      Fuery, Angela; Browning, Geoffrey R.; Tan, Jie; Long, Simon; Hayward, Gary S.; Cox, Sherry K.; Flanagan, Joseph P.; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E.; Howard, Lauren L.; Ling, Paul D. (2016)
      Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants…. In this brief communication, two cases of EEHV4 infection in juvenile elephants at the Houston Zoo are described, where both cases were resolved following intensive treatment and administration of famciclovir….
    • Comparison of thiafenantil-xylazine and carfentanil-xylazine for immobilization of gemsbok (Oryx gazella)

      Kilgallon, Conor P.; Lamberski, Nadine; Larsen, R. Scott; (2010)
      This study compared immobilization of gemsbok (Oryx gazella) using thiafentanil-xylazine (TX) versus carfentanil-xylazine (CX). Twelve adult gemsboks were divided into two groups, TX and CX. Each group received either 6 mg thiafentanil (0.036 µg/kg (0.032–0.040 µg/kg) and 20 mg xylazine (TX) or 3.6 mg carfentanil (0.021 µg/kg (0.017–0.024 µg/kg) and 20 mg xylazine (CX)….
    • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance for the advanced imaging of the normal nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

      Bercier, Marjorie; Alexander, Kate; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W. (2014)
      The objective of this study is to describe computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) for the cross-sectional imaging of the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), to provide reference figures for gross anatomy with corresponding CT and MR images, and to compare the features of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the normal koala with that reported in other domestic species. Advanced imaging can be used to aid in diagnosis, to plan surgical intervention, and to monitor therapeutic responses to diseases of the nasal passages in koalas....
    • Conservation and animal behavior

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Breed, Michael D.; Moore, Janice (Academic Press, 2010)
    • Conservation behaviour

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Mills, D.S.; Marchant-Forde, J.N.; McGreevy, P.D.; Morton, D.B.; Nicol, C.J.; Phillips, C.J.C.; Sandoe, P.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (CABICambridge, MA, 2010)
    • Conspecific attraction

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Mills, D.S.; Marchant-Forde, J.N.; McGreevy, P.D.; Morton, D.B.; Nicol, C.J.; Phillips, C.J.C.; Sandoe, P.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (CABICambridge, MA, 2010)
    • Critically endangered

      Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Mills, D.S.; Marchant-Forde, J.N.; McGreevy, P.D.; Morton, D.B.; Nicol, C.J.; Phillips, C.J.C.; Sandoe, P.; Swaisgood, Ronald R. (CABICambridge, MA, 2010)
    • Cross-cultural consensus for waist–hip ratio and women's attractiveness

      Singh, Devendra; Dixson, B. J.; Jessop, T. S.; Morgan, Bethan J.; Dixson, Alan F.; (2010)
      In women of reproductive age, a gynoid body fat distribution as measured by the size of waist–hip ratio (WHR) is a reliable indicator of their sex hormone profile, greater success in pregnancy and less risk for major diseases. According to evolutionary mate selection theory, such indicators of health and fertility should be judged as attractive….
    • Dermal hemangiosarcoma in a sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps)

      Rivas, Anne E.; Pye, Geoffrey W.; Papendick, Rebecca (2014)
      ….There are published reports of sugar gliders diagnosed with neoplasia, and oncology cases affecting this species are occasionally seen in clinical practice. Based on an extensive literature search, the authors believe this is the first report of a dermal hemangiosarcoma in a sugar glider.
    • Development of a case definition for clinical feline herpesvirus infection in cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) housed in zoos

      Witte, Carmel L.; Lamberski, Nadine; Rideout, Bruce; Fields, Victoria; Teare, Cyd Shields; Barrie, Michael; Haefele, Holly; Junge, Randall; Murray, Suzan; Hungerford, Laura L. (2013)
      The identification of feline herpesvirus (FHV) infected cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and characterization of shedding episodes is difficult due to nonspecific clinical signs and limitations of diagnostic tests. The goals of this study were to develop a case definition for clinical FHV and describe the distribution of signs. Medical records from six different zoologic institutions were reviewed to identify cheetahs with diagnostic test results confirming FHV….
    • Disorders of nondomestic mammals

      Rideout, Bruce; Njaa, Bradley L. (John Wiley & Sons, 2012)
      Kirkbride's Diagnosis of Abortion and Neonatal Loss in Animals, Fourth Edition is a concise resource for determining the causes of abortion and neonatal loss in cattle, small ruminants, pigs, horses, dogs, cats, and exotic mammals…. Covers cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, dogs, cats, and non-domestic mammals Details the characteristics of many abortifacient causes and associated lesions….
    • Distal limb swelling and periosteal productive reaction in periparturient Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana): five cases of presumptive hypertrophic osteopathy

      Marinkovich, Matt; Wisner, Erik R.; Brenner, Deena J. (2019)
      Hypertrophic osteopathy, a syndrome characterized by painful distal limb swelling and proliferative periosteal reaction, primarily involves the metacarpal and metatarsal bones and phalanges. Lesions are often bilaterally symmetric and typically affect all four limbs....
    • Does placental invasiveness lead to higher rates of malignant transformation in mammals?Response to: ‘Available data suggests positive relationship between placental invasion an malignancy’

      Boddy, Amy M.; Abegglen, Lisa M.; Aktipis, Athena; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Maley, Carlo C.; Witte, Carmel L. (2020)
      In our study, Lifetime cancer prevalence and life history traits in mammals, we reported the prevalence of neoplasia and malignancy in a select group of mammals housed at San Diego Zoo Global from 1964 to 1978 and 1987 to 2015 [1]. We also used these data to evaluate associations between life history traits and measures of population health. Our analysis showed placental invasiveness could not predict the proportion of animals diagnosed with neoplasia or malignancy. In a response to our article, Drs Wagner and colleagues describe a different calculation to test for a relationship between placental invasiveness and malignancy. They identified and included previously published veterinary neoplasia and malignancy data with our published dataset and suggest a positive relationship between placental invasiveness and development of malignancy (referred to as malignancy rate in Wagner and colleagues’ response). These data provided support for the Evolved Levels of Invasiveness (ELI) hypothesis [2]. We are pleased that other investigators find our data useful, and wholeheartedly agree with Drs Wagner and colleagues in the need to identify more data on cancer in a wide variety of species. Notwithstanding, this updated analysis brings up a number of topics that we would like to address....