• Resources for humans, plants and animals: Who is the ruler of the driver? And: Can resource use explain everything?

      Hobohm, Carsten; Vanderplank, Sula E.; Hobohm, Carsten; Cabin, Robert J. (Springer International PublishingCham, Switzerland, 2021)
      ...We ask the question “is it possible to estimate the effects of human exploitation of ecosystems?” Under changing conditions the ecosystem is adapting the resource use permanently by adjusting the combination of its features. Productivity is the driver of recent conditions and biomass is storage; the existence of each is a precondition for the other. Species diversity can increase by immigration and evolution and decrease by emigration and extinction.....
    • The cryptic genetic structure of the North American captive gorilla population

      Nsubuga, A.M.; Holzman, J.; Chemnick, Leona G.; Ryder, Oliver A.; (2010)
      Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) were imported from across their geographical range to North American zoos from the late 1800s through 1974.... Here, we analyze 32 microsatellite loci in 144 individuals using a Bayesian clustering method to delineate clusters of individuals among a sample of founders of the captive North American zoo gorilla collection....
    • Tissue sampling methods and standards for vertebrate genomics

      Wong, P.B.Y.; Wiley, E.O.; Johnson, W.E.; Ryder, Oliver A.; O'Brien, S.J.; Haussler, C.; Koepfli, K.-P.; Houck, Marlys L.; Perelman, P.; Mastromonaco, G.; et al. (2012)
      The recent rise in speed and efficiency of new sequencing technologies have facilitated high-throughput sequencing, assembly and analyses of genomes, advancing ongoing efforts to analyze genetic sequences across major vertebrate groups. Standardized procedures in acquiring high quality DNA and RNA and establishing cell lines from target species will facilitate these initiatives. We provide a legal and methodological guide according to four standards of acquiring and storing tissue for the Genome 10K Project and similar initiatives as follows: four-star (banked tissue/cell cultures, RNA from multiple types of tissue for transcriptomes, and sufficient flash-frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA, all from a single individual); three-star (RNA as above and frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA); two-star (frozen tissue for at least 700 ?g of DNA); and one-star (ethanol-preserved tissue for 700 ?g of DNA or less of mixed quality). At a minimum, all tissues collected for the Genome 10K and other genomic projects should consider each species’ natural history and follow institutional and legal requirements. Associated documentation should detail as much information as possible about provenance to ensure representative sampling and subsequent sequencing. Hopefully, the procedures outlined here will not only encourage success in the Genome 10K Project but also inspire the adaptation of standards by other genomic projects, including those involving other biota.
    • Urgent action needed: The forgotten forests of the Lavasoa-Ambatotsirongorongo Mountains, southeast Madagascar

      Eppley, Timothy M.; Refaly, Ernest; Tsagnangara, Cedric; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Donati, Giuseppe (2019)
      When we think of important areas of biodiversity within Madagascar, we tend to focus on the more well-known na-tional parks and special reserves. The truth is, however, that there are many small fragments scattered across this island that hold a significant wealth of biodiversity that are in criti-cal need of attention and immediate conservation actions. One such system is a group of six small forest fragments within the Lavasoa-Ambatotsirongorongo mountains in the extreme southeast of Madagascar. From east to west, these include Ambatotsirongorongo, Bemanasa, and Grand Lava-soa (Fig. 1). This last fragment is further divided into four fragments that are all in relatively close proximity....
    • Using molecular methods to improve the genetic management of captive breeding programs for threatened species

      Ivy, Jamie A.; Lacy, Robert C.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Bickham, John W.; Michler, Charles H.; Nichols, Krista M.; Rhodes, Gene E.; Woeste, Keith E. (Cambridge University PressCambridge, 2010)
      ...the genetic goals of captive population management are to minimize genetic drift, retain genetic diversity, restrict inbreeding, and limit adaptation to captivity (Lacy 1994). The foundations of most captive breeding programs are pedigree analyses, which are used to manage both the demography and genetics of captive populations (Ballou & Foose 1996)....